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Additional resources for A critique of silviculture : managing for complexity
In both cases, however, cuttings were timed to accommodate the respective shade tolerances of the regenerating species, in most cases oak and beech. Thus, while on the surface both Femelschlags appeared quite similar, they should not be lumped in teaching and application (Hausrath 1982; Hasel 1984; Mayer 1984; Mantel 1990). A closer look quickly exhibits subtle differences that are a direct response to the local conditions described above. 34 a critique of silviculture: manag ing for complexity Single-Tree and Group Selection The single-tree selection method (also labeled Plenterwald in central Europe) originated under specific local conditions.
The wider application of other silvicultural systems was often driven by similarity in ecological constraints. , in southwestern Oregon, see Childs and Flint 1987). Integration of Scientific Advancement into Silviculture Teachings Silviculture, by its very nature, is an integrative field that synthesizes information from other scientific disciplines (Nyland 2002). As such, it is strongly influenced by the advancement of knowledge in other disciplines. Early forestry books listed silviculture as the central discipline of forestry (du Monceau 1766; Hartig 1791) and covered ideas and knowledge about growth and yield, inventory, and economics.
1). These conditions led to the first published discussion of wood supply sustainability (von Carlowitz 1713). They also led to the development and use of inventory and forest planning tools (Hartig 1795; Cotta 1817), which became widely adopted. The tools were so successful that inventory and planning (forest regulation) became a dominant field in Fachwerkverfahren: A forest management approach in which forests are divided into similar-sized management units. The goal of this division is to ensure a long-term supply of wood and stable age-class distributions (see Normalwald).