Activation and Catalytic Reactions of Saturated Hydrocarbons by A.E. Shilov, Georgiy B. Shul'pin, Alexander E. Shilov

By A.E. Shilov, Georgiy B. Shul'pin, Alexander E. Shilov

Hemistry is the technology approximately breaking and forming of bonds among atoms. some of the most very important techniques for natural chemistry is breaking bonds C–H, in addition to C–C in numerous compounds, and basically, in hydrocarbons. between hydrocarbons, saturated hydrocarbons, alkanes (methane, ethane, propane, hexane and so on. ), are specifically appealing as substrates for chemical changes. the reason for this is that, at the one hand, alkanes are the most elements of oil and typical fuel, and hence are the important feedstocks for chemical undefined. nevertheless, those components are recognized to be the fewer reactive natural compounds. Saturated hydrocarbons should be referred to as the “noble gases of natural chemistry” and, if this is the case, the 1st consultant in their kinfolk – methane – could be in comparison with tremendous inert helium. As in all comparisons, this parallel among noble gases and alkanes isn't really totally actual. certainly the differences of alkanes, together with methane, were identified for a very long time. those reactions contain the interplay with molecular oxygen from air (burning – the most resource of energy!), in addition to a few mutual interconversions of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. although, these kind of adjustments take place at increased temperatures (higher than 300–500 °C) and are typically characterised by way of a scarcity of selectivity. The conversion of alkanes into carbon dioxide and water in the course of burning is a really worthwhile approach – yet now not from a chemist perspective.

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P. 69) A large isotope effect supports the hydrogen abstraction–recombination mechanism involving the triplet state nitrene II-2. D. REACTIONS WITH PARTICIPATION OF ION RADICALS The interaction of arenes or alkylarenes, with some oxidants, Ox, [27] for example, with cerium(IV) salts [27c] or photoactivated quinones [27d], gives rise to the formation of the ion-radical pair: Transformations in the Absence of Metals 37 which can subsequently undergo proton transfer to generate radical species: Carbon-centered arylalkyl radicals can then enter into various transformations, for example, can react with molecular oxygen (see next section).

Some other carbenes react much more selectively than simple For example, phenylcarbene reacts approximately eight times faster and species CHC1 twenty times faster with a secondary C–H bond of than with a primary one. Diclorocarbene reacts even more selectively and inserts only into secondary and tertiary C–H bonds. Even secondary bonds are not affected if a tertiary bond is present. Calculations demonstrated that in the methylene insertion into the C–H bond, the hydrogen atom is first attacked to produce a complex similar to that which is formed in the recombination of two radicals [24].

Metalloorg. Khim. 1989, 2, 249 (in Russian). (d) Crabtree, R. H. Acc. Chem. Res. 1990, 23, 95. (e) Crabtree, R. H. Angew. , Int. Ed. Engl. 1993, 32, 789. (f) Heinekey, D. ; Oldham, W. , Jr. Chem. Rev. 1993, 93, 913. ; Perutz, R. N. Chem. Rev. 1996, 96, 3125. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. (a) Sykes, P. A Guidebook to Mechanism in Organic Chemistry; Longman: London, 1971, Ch. 6. (b) Dneprovskiy, A. ; Temnikova, T. I. Theoretical Principles of Organic Chemistry, Khimiya: Leningrad, 1979, Chpts. 14, 15 (in Russian).

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