By Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development
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Additional resources for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles And Radioactive Waste Management: Nuclear Development
44 Some countries have different approaches to categorising radioactive waste. For example, in the United States radioactive waste types are classified for land disposal (Classes A, B or C depending on the concentration of defined radionuclides and thus requiring different degrees of stability and length of the institutional control ), HLW and greater than Class C waste . g. phase) and other parameters. Raw (“as generated”) waste is usually treated directly at the facility with the aim of reducing its volume for storage at the facility and/or facilitating its further final conditioning for storage or disposal.
The following technologies can be considered: x Compactable (including ash from incineration) – super-compaction [volume reduction factor (VR) 5-10, depending on the type of the waste] with following embedding of waste pellets in inert matrix or packaging in high integrity containers (HIC). ). g. ) usually (after size optimisation) embedding into inert matrix – cement, polymers, etc. In some cases the cement mixture is prepared within liquid radioactive waste. x Various – processing in plasma torch (VR depends on the kind of the waste) – very advanced technology, still not commonly applied, resulting in glass- or ceramic-like waste form with excellent chemical durability.
11] Takizuka, T. et al. (1999), “Dedicated Accelerator-Driven System for Nuclear Waste Transmutation”, Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technologies and Applications, 7-11 June 1999, Praha (Pruhonice), Czech Republic, Paper Mo-O-F15 (CD ROM).  González, E. et al. (2001), “Transuranics Transmutation on Fertile and Inert Matrix LeadBismuth Cooled ADS”, In NEA (2001), Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation, 6th Information Exchange Meeting, 11-13 December 2000, Madrid, Spain, OECD, Paris.