Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles And Radioactive Waste by Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development

By Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development

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44 Some countries have different approaches to categorising radioactive waste. For example, in the United States radioactive waste types are classified for land disposal (Classes A, B or C depending on the concentration of defined radionuclides and thus requiring different degrees of stability and length of the institutional control [4]), HLW and greater than Class C waste [5]. g. phase) and other parameters. Raw (“as generated”) waste is usually treated directly at the facility with the aim of reducing its volume for storage at the facility and/or facilitating its further final conditioning for storage or disposal.

The following technologies can be considered: x Compactable (including ash from incineration) – super-compaction [volume reduction factor (VR) 5-10, depending on the type of the waste] with following embedding of waste pellets in inert matrix or packaging in high integrity containers (HIC). ). g. ) usually (after size optimisation) embedding into inert matrix – cement, polymers, etc. In some cases the cement mixture is prepared within liquid radioactive waste. x Various – processing in plasma torch (VR depends on the kind of the waste) – very advanced technology, still not commonly applied, resulting in glass- or ceramic-like waste form with excellent chemical durability.

11] Takizuka, T. et al. (1999), “Dedicated Accelerator-Driven System for Nuclear Waste Transmutation”, Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technologies and Applications, 7-11 June 1999, Praha (Pruhonice), Czech Republic, Paper Mo-O-F15 (CD ROM). [12] González, E. et al. (2001), “Transuranics Transmutation on Fertile and Inert Matrix LeadBismuth Cooled ADS”, In NEA (2001), Actinide and Fission Product Partitioning and Transmutation, 6th Information Exchange Meeting, 11-13 December 2000, Madrid, Spain, OECD, Paris.

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