Alkali & Alkaline Earth Metals (Periodic Table of the by Monica Halka

By Monica Halka

Scientists categorize the chemical components as metals, nonmetals, and metalloids mostly according to the weather' talents to behavior electrical energy at general temperatures and pressures, yet there are different differences taken under consideration whilst classifying the weather within the periodic desk. The alkali metals, for instance, are metals, yet have such distinct homes that they're given their very own class. a similar is right for the alkaline earths.

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Example text

This convenient method has been used successfully to keep air breathable for humans living in extreme environments like deep-sea diving apparatuses, submarines, space suits, and spacecraft. One of the many serious problems that occurred during the Apollo 13 lunar mission involved LiOH canisters that didn’t fit the air purification system. Lithium hydroxide’s light weight and relatively low cost have recommended it over other alkali hydroxides, any of which could do the same job. Lithium hydroxide is water soluble, however, which is undesirable in situations where less care might be taken to keep it dry.

These events may occur naturally—fusion is the process that powers the Sun and all other stars—or they may be made to occur artificially. Elements can be transmuted artificially by bombarding heavy target nuclei with lighter projectile nuclei in reactors or accelerators. The transuranium elements have been produced that way. Curium, for example, can be made by bombarding plutonium with alpha particles. Because the projectile and target nuclei both carry positive charges, projectiles must be accelerated to velocities close to the speed of light to overcome the force of repulsion between them.

Relative abundances of elements can be expressed in parts per million, either by mass or by numbers of atoms. On Earth, elements may be found in the lithosphere (the rocky, solid part of Earth), the hydrosphere (the aqueous, or watery, part of Earth), or the atmosphere. Elements such as the noble gases, the rare earths, and commercially valuable metals like silver and gold occur in only trace quantities. Others, like oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, hydrogen, sulfur, and carbon are abundant.

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