Battery Hazards and Accident Prevention by Samuel C. Levy

By Samuel C. Levy

This publication is ready tips to stay away from the injuries and accidents which may ensue while batteries are abused or mishandled. it's the first e-book to deal particularly with this topic in a fairly complete demeanour available to readers starting from common shoppers to technical experts. Batteries and battery strategies are defined in enough element to allow readers to appreciate why and the way batteries reason injuries and what should be performed to avoid them. every year within the usa by myself, hundreds of thousands of people are injured via battery injuries, a few of that are critically disabling. The tragedy is that such injuries don't need to happen. The publication is meant to fulfill the wishes of a different team of readers: battery clients normally, battery engineers, and architects of battery-operated gear and purchaser electronics. because the publication is a reference resource of knowledge on batteries and battery chemical compounds, we think it could possibly even be beneficial to these learning the surroundings in addition to to clinical body of workers referred to as upon to regard battery accidents. There are not any necessities for an less than­ status of the textual content except an curiosity in batteries and their secure utilization.

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Battery Hazards and Accident Prevention

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Consider what may happen if one cell in a series stack has a low capacity, as might happen if a partially discharged cell is used in a series stack of fresh cells. When the inferior cell becomes exhausted, the voltage of the battery decreases and the battery may fail to operate the device, a likely event with series strings that contain very few cells. If the device continues to draw current, even if the voltage has decreased, the continued discharge forces current to flow through the exhausted cell, where it forces electrochemical reactions to occur, principally the evolution of hydrogen and/or oxygen in aqueous electrolyte systems, or other reactions, depending on the composition of the systems.

Casual exposure to sulfuric acid is probably the most commonly occurring event because of the widespread use of lead-acid batteries in automobiles and the need for users to open the batteries when replenishing water lost from the batteries as a result of charging. Maintenance-free lead-acid batteries do not have this problem. Furthermore, when lead-acid batteries are charged, the evolution of gas in open batteries may create a fine mist that may expose individuals to contact with sulfuric acid.

12. T. L. Litovitz, Button battery ingestions, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 249, 2495 (1983). II FUNDAMENTAL ASPECTS OF BATTERY SAFETY Battery hazards may occur whenever the contents of a battery escape and enter the immediate or remote environment. The hazards created depend upon the chemical nature of the battery and upon the rate at which the contents escape. The prerequisite for any escape is the creation of a force sufficient to violate the integrity of the battery, that is, the creation or presence of an escape path and the creation of a driving force to expel the contents from a battery.

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