By Tove Skutnabb-Kangas
This booklet offers with bilingualism, relatively because it pertains to migrants and indigenous minorities. humans from (linguistic) minorities usually need to turn into bilingual for you to cope within the better society, whereas majority representatives may well voluntarily develop into bilingual. The publication starts off with a only linguistic insurance of bilingualism after which offers with the necessities and outcomes of bilingualism from the views of psychology and pedagogy. It then strikes on from the relations and the varsity to foreign comparisons of societies with varied minority guidelines. It additionally analyses controversies concerning the schooling of migrants and minorities and areas them within the wider political context. one of the themes lined are the mummy tongue, its improvement and value and the way it differs from languages discovered later definitions and dimension of bilingualism alternative ways of changing into bilingual for various teams, within the institution and the kin bilingualism, cognitive improvement and faculty success semilingualism visitor employee coverage and immigrant coverage violence in minority schooling.
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Additional resources for Bilingualism or Not: The Education of Minorities (Multilingual Matters)
See, for example, Londen & Skutnabb-Kangas, 1976a; Hanssen, 1979a; Ryen, 1976a, 1976b; Thorne & Henley, 1975; Israel, 1973; Dittmar, 1974; Blakar, 1973; Mey, 1981; Spender, 1980. 2. See, for example, Rekdal, 1975b, 1977; Freire, 1972, 1974; Skutnabb-Kangas & Rekdal, 1977a, 1979; Skutnabb-Kangas & Rekdal, 1978. 3. See, for example, Bull, 1955; Ferguson, 1968, 1977; Jernudd, 1976, 1979; Jernudd & Das Gupta, 1971; Language Planning Newsletter, 1975; Linell, 1978. Page 12 2 What Is a Mother Tongue?
Is it possible to have two mother tongues? 5 Two mother tongues = complete bilingualism - is it possible? 3 How do we learn our mother tongue? 4 The learning of other languages - what is different? 2 What do we mean by two different languages? 2 Who is bilingual, and why? 8 Synthesis: descriptive profiles instead of definitions 895 Different Aspects of BiligualismDichotomies . 2 One code or two codes? 2 From a linguistic point of view - one or two systems? 2 From a neuropsychological and neurolinguistic point of view - one or two barrels?
All children start school at the age of 7, which is fairly late from an international point of view. In Finland, Norway and Sweden there are state schools only (with very few exceptions), in Denmark also private schools but the state pays most of the expenses even in them. Children can leave school at 16 or after grade 9, but more than half of them continue some kind of education even after that. The length of the school day varies, and especially in the elementary school the hours spent in school are few (20-24 hours per week).