By R. Amils, A. Ballester
The main topic of the foreign Biohydrometallurgy Symposium IBS-99 'Biohydrometallurgy and the surroundings towards the mining of the twenty first Century', held in El Escorial (Spain) from 20-23 June 1999, is biohydrometallurgy and the surroundings because it is anticipated that during the arriving century biotechnology will make its maximum contribution during this zone. From the papers in those volumes it really is transparent that environmental matters are already of serious curiosity to the biohydrometallurgical neighborhood.
Although the entire classical biohydrometallurgical issues - e.g. bioleaching, microbiology, molecular biology, biosorption, bioremediation - are addressed, the continuing emphasis is at the environmentally pleasant features of the biotechnologies used.
Given the interdisciplinary nature of the sphere, biologists, hydrometallurgists, geologists, chemists, physicists and engineers can be attracted to this selection of papers which debate the long run traits in biohydrometallurgy.
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Extra resources for Biohydrometallurgy and the Environment Toward the Mining of the 21st Century (Process Metallurgy)
MOLECULAR GENETICS The molecular genetics of the mesophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing chemolithtrophic bacteria other than T. ferrooxidans is almost unstudied. This review will therefore focus primarily on T. ferrooxidans but will include what little is known about the other physiologically similar bacteria. A previous review of the molecular genetics of T. ferrooxidans (70) covered the period up to mid-1993. Several significant advances have been made since then and this review is intended to focus mainly on developments over the past five years.
4 Transposons on the chromosome of T. f e r r o o x i d a n s One of the most striking genetic similarities between E. coli and T. ferrooxidans was the discovery of a Tn7-1ike transposon (Tn5468) in the C-terminal region of the T. ferrooxidans glmS gene (54). There is a high frequency insertion site for Tn7 in the equivalent region of the glmS gene of E. coli. Tn5468 is the closest relative to Tn7 characterised to date (see Figure 4). _ Nf Tn5468 Thiobacillusferrooxidans ATCC 33020 Figure 4. The structure and location of Tn7 at its specific insertion site immediately downstream of the glmS gene on the E.
No Yes ND Yes No Yes 23 unpublished 8 8 1 21 glucosamine synthase glutamine synthetase citrate synthase glutamate synthase small subunit ),-glutamylcysteine synthetase high-redox-potential ferredoxin 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase mercury reductase Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No 54 2, 68 58 15 Yes NA Yes Yes ND Yes 59 45 28, 36 Yes Yes 30, 32, 78 Yes Yes 32 Yes Yes 32 ND Yes ND Yes 61, 66 4 two-component nitrogen gene regulators pyruvate dehydrogenase complex adenylosuccinate synthetase Probable rbcLS gene regulator D-ribulose- 1,5-biphosphate carboxylase (two copies present) homologous recombination and SOS response regulator ATP-dependent DNA helicase putative recA regulator tRNA cleaving, RNaseP ribosomal RNA genes, partially sequenced rusticyanin Yes Yes 38 Yes Yes 58 Yes NA Yes Yes NR No 43 40 41, 44, 63 Yes No 23, 64 ND ND ND ND ND No ND ND 54 23 82 74 NA No 3, 24 thioredoxin tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase sulphur-regulated OMP Yes Yes NR Yes Yes (weak) NR 60 72 Buonfiglio, unpublished glmS glnA gltA gltD gshA iro leuB gbJ01619 embX57324 gbD 14585 merA merC X 2 not deposited embX57326 merR X 2 embX57326 nifHDK ntrA gbM15238 gbM33831 ntrBC gbL 18975 pdhABC gbU81808 purA rbcR rbpLS X 2 embX57324 embD 11141 embD90113 embX70355 gbM26933 mercuric ion transport (two copies) merA gene regulator (two copies) nitrogen-fixing nitrogenase RNA polymerase sigma factor, 0 trxA tyrZ .