By Yitzhak Feder
This pioneering learn examines using blood to purge the consequences of sin and impurity in Hittite and biblical ritual. the concept that blood atones for sins holds a well-liked position in either Jewish and Christian traditions. the writer strains this thought again to its earliest documentation within the fourteenth- and thirteenth-century B.C.E. texts from Hittite Anatolia, during which the smearing of blood is used as a way of expiation, purification, and consecration. This ceremony parallels, in either its process and targets, the biblical sin delivering. the writer argues that this tradition stems from a typical culture manifested in either cultures. furthermore, this ebook goals to decipher and elucidate the symbolism of the perform of blood smearing via trying to determine the sociocultural context during which the expiatory importance of blood originated. therefore, it's crucial examining for a person drawn to the that means and efficacy of formality, the origins of Jewish and Christian notions of sin and atonement, and the foundation of the biblical blood ceremony.
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Extra resources for Blood Expiation in Hittite and Biblical Ritual (Writings from the Ancient World Supplements)
Alternatively, since the blood rite seems to follow the evocation sequences, the blood might better be viewed as an offering to greet the goddess upon her emergence from the underworld. This sequence in which the blood rite immediately follows evocations is repeated in two subsequent phases of the ritual (see below). GA ⌊GIŠ⌋ tal-la-i an-da ⌊da-a-i⌋ As soon as he finishes the tuḫalzi ritual in the old temple, however, they pour fine oil into a tallai vessel. Before the deity he speaks thus: “Esteemed deity, protect yourself but split your divinity.
On the third day, they perform the gangati rite for the deity. Then they wave various creatures—an eagle, a falcon, a lamb, a young goat, and a partridge as well as a ḫušti stone—over the icons. Then the “waters of purification” are used to wash the deity and sprinkle the temple (II, 1–5). Then two geese are burned as “anger” (parliya) and “sin” (arniya) offerings by the gates of the temple (7–8). 60 Then a goat is slaughtered for well-being (9–13). These offerings of the birds and the lamb are then repeated in a parallel manner beside the temple of Hebat (14–16).
60 Then a goat is slaughtered for well-being (9–13). These offerings of the birds and the lamb are then repeated in a parallel manner beside the temple of Hebat (14–16). From the explicit reference to Hebat, we can extrapolate that the main god in the ritual is the goddess’ spouse Tešub. At this point, we can take a step back to determine the overall goals of this ritual and the zurki rite’s place among them. 61 The gangati and zurki rites of the second day, which follow the reinstallation of the icons in the temple, seem to continue the process of purification of the first day.