CCD Image Sensors in Deep-Ultraviolet: Degradation Behavior by Flora Li, Arokia Nathan

By Flora Li, Arokia Nathan

As the deep-ultraviolet (DUV) laser expertise maintains to mature, increasingly more commercial and production purposes are rising. for instance, the hot new release of semiconductor inspection platforms is being driven to photo at more and more shorter DUV wavelengths to facilitate inspection of deep sub-micron gains in built-in circuits. DUV-sensitive charge-coupled equipment (CCD) cameras are renowned for those purposes. even though CCD cameras which are responsive at DUV wavelengths are actually to be had, their long term balance remains to be a massive main issue. This publication describes the degradation mechanisms and long term functionality of CCDs within the DUV, in addition to new result of machine functionality at those wavelengths.

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Additional resources for CCD Image Sensors in Deep-Ultraviolet: Degradation Behavior and Damage Mechanisms (Microtechnology and MEMS)

Example text

2 Applications of CCD in DUV UV laser technology is evolving from the research phase to commercial phase in a variety of fields. Such technology provides unique functional features such as high resolution, athermal processing, and precise microstructuring and micropatterning capabilities. High power laser sources of DUV radiation play an important role in numerous applications such as microlithography, micromachining, and material modification. Recent progresses in DUV optical materials, laser resonators, and electronics enable dramatic improvements in the power levels, brightness, intensity uniformity, long term stability, and reliability of the DUV excimer laser systems.

Eph ≥ EG ), the absorption of the photons occurs. The reaction between the Si and the impending light causes the excitation of electrons from the Si valence band to the conduction band. This is known as band-to-band, or fundamental, absorption, which creates one or several, in the case of higher energy photons, e-h pair(s). The e-h pairs become excess carriers and are free to contribute to the conductivity of the material in their respective bands. This is called the photoelectric effect. An important aspect of this effect is that a critical wavelength, λc , exists in which no electrons can be created for a given material.

The decrease in the spectral response over time ranges from 10% to slightly greater than 50% for Sibased detectors, even when relatively small laser fluences (<10 µJ/cm2 ) were used [37]. In the literature, it is reported that the fundamental reason for this destruction is the high photon energy, compared to the band-gap energy of the detector material. 1 eV. Such high photon energy creates a large number of destructive traps to cause the QE degradation [37]. 6 The short absorption depth signifies that the carriers are generated very close to the Si-SiO2 interface.

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