Clays and Clay Minerals in Natural and Synthetic Systems by B. Velde

By B. Velde

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Experiments at pressures of one kilobar and above indicate that talc is produced between 100-300°C (Hohling, 1958). However, its occurrence in salt deposits (Braitsch, 1971; Fuchtbauer and Goldschmidt, 1959) and carbonates (Millot, 1964) indicate that it continues to be stable at lower temperatures. The experimental work of Siffert (1962) indicates that talc could be precipitated from concentrated basic solutions (pH > 9) where other magnesian silicates such as sepiolite and trioctahedral montmorillonite are not stable.

Arrow indicates that kaolinite is stable to the greatost depth in the sequence. (Burnham, 1962; Keller and Hanson, 1968; Rose, 1970; Lowell and Guilbert, 1970; Keller, 1963). These studies indicate that kaolinite can be formed by hydrothermal alteration at the surface as well as to depths of several kilometers. Although information is lacking for low temperatures, intermediate conditions of pressure and temperature are known to permit the stability of the potassic mica-beidellite mixed layered composition series which excludes the stable coexistence of K-feldspar and kaolinite.

And theory do not give a simple answer. It would appear that laboratory Let us then look at forms of silica found in different geologic environments. (a) Weathering Under conditions of intense weathering, silica is unstable in the crystalline form. Mature bauxites, soils representing the most intense weathering conditions, contain no quartz and little combined silica. High rates of water influx remove Si02 at low solution concentrations. Normal ground water and streams carry about 17 ppm Si02 and less in high rainfall areas (Davis, 1964).

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