Coal-Bearing Depositional Systems by Claus F.K. Diessel

By Claus F.K. Diessel

The writer offers examples of coal deposits varied continents: from the ecu Carboniferous and the Permian Gondwana series of Australia. The natural and petrographic composition of the coal content material of palaeo-environmentally good outlined teams of sediments let the discrimination of 2 coal facies indices as compatible signs for designated settings. Combining the analytical tools of coal petrography, sedimentology and series stratigraphy an built-in view of coal formation is attained.

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Pteropods) strategy (Collinson and Scott 1987). This requires a moist environment and free water in order to fertilise the spores. It also necessitates that the timing of spore release coincides with favourable conditions for fertilisation and sporophyte growth because the embryo is poorly protected and has only a small food reserve (Phillips 1979). Because of these somewhat adverse conditions, fertilisation had a low success rate, which was balanced by producing spores in large quantities in order to assure that reproduction was kept at a high level.

The thawing period in springtime provides more water than can be retained in the peat which results in another runoff peak (from mid-March in Fig. 2) after which only occasional heavy showers will cause excessive runoff (see July in Fig. 2). Towards late summer and autumn, precipitation may not be infrequent but is volumetrically small enough to be absorbed by the growing vegetation, with the result that no runoff occurs at all and the groundwater table, which has been oscillating throughout the summer months, reaches its lowest position (see August to October in Fig.

The results are increased FjM and strongly reduced NjS ratios, although the FjM ratio of the Taxodium peat is only moderate due the higher proportion of herbaceous debris. e. g. woody versus herbaceous) will certainly modify this relationship. The NjS ratio is likewise an indicator of the degree of plant decomposition. A high ratio suggests considerable surface degradation and advanced tissue decay whereby, once again, the different preservation potentials of different plants growing in similar circumstances will affect its numerical value.

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