Colour Atlas of Mouth, Throat and Ear Disorders in Children by John Bain MD, FRCGP, DCH, DObstRCOG, Philip Carter MB, ChB,

By John Bain MD, FRCGP, DCH, DObstRCOG, Philip Carter MB, ChB, FRCGP, Richard Morton MSc, FRPS, FBPA, AIMBI (auth.)

Disorders of the higher respiration tract and the ear treatment. account for nearly 50070 of all sickness in little ones lower than the pictures of throats have been taken on Koda­ five years and 30% in little ones elderly 5-12 years. The chrome sixty four movie utilizing a Micro Nikkor fifty five mm lens and time taken to envision the mouth, throat and ear in a a Nikkormat FTN digicam with a Sunpak GX 8R ri- flash. . younger baby is usually short and sometimes not more than a fleeting glimpse could be bought of the world affected. on the subject of ear exam, images With this in brain we thought of· that an atlas of via an auriscope offers critical boundaries as universal stipulations used to be required within the literature of the photographs received supply just a slender attitude of view adolescence ailments. permitting just a small sector of the tympanic membrane This atlas comprises stipulations which lend them­ to be obvious at one time. consequently, the ear photograph­ selves to representation and is not at all compre­ graphs have been taken utilizing a four mm diameter Storz Tele­ hensive. the pictures have been all taken from otoscope. this offers a wide-angle view of the kids offering ordinarily perform within the United entire eardrum and adjoining exterior auditory canal.

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Where the outer margin of the drum is attached to the external canal it is thickened and called the annulus fibrosa. The upper one-fifth of the drum is slack and called the pars flaccida and the lower four-fifths called the pars tensa. The handle of the malleus, which extends downwards and backwards, is a reliable landmark. The short process of the malleus protrudes forwards into the external canal. The umbo is the central attachment of the tympanic membrane to the malleus. From the umbo a cone of light extends downwards and forwards.

1--......... :li o· 3 -100...... 0 I lfl'll' " '100 I... • , ,""II 0 , e flex '200 3 I r j I - 2 :0. I lI- I ,- I I0 0 In · 300 56 'rmPllnowam jrnl' I -200 -100""... , 4. THE EXTERNAL AUDITORY MEATUS i. Wax Figures 112, 113, 114 and 115 Wax, or cerumen, is a normal secretion in the cerumenous glands in the outer part of the meatus, and can obscure or partially obscure the drum. When it is first produced it is colourless and semi-liquid in consistency, but with time it changes from pale yellow, to golden yellow, to light brown and finally, black.

It consists of three layers - an outer epithelial layer, a middle fibrous layer, and an inner mucosal layer. The eustachian tube is more horizontal and relatively wider and shorter in the child than in the adult. The upper third of the eustachian tube is bony, with the lower two thirds cartilaginous. The opening into the lateral wall of the nasopharynx lies on a level with the inferior turbinate. ,-l,-- soft pa Iate pharynx 45 Figure 85 The normal tympanic membrane is thin and semi-transparent.

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