Computer Numerical Control of Machine Tools, 2nd Edition by G. E. Thyer (Auth.)

By G. E. Thyer (Auth.)

It is a accomplished textbook catering for BTEC scholars at NIII and better nationwide degrees, complex urban and Guilds classes, and the early years of measure classes. it's also excellent to be used in business retraining and post-experience programmes.

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13 Break-even c h a r t s Break-even charts can help to decide which machine should be used to produce a particular tools Hence F A— F Β — Qbe (C B— C A) 33 C o m p u t e r n u m e r i c a l control of m a c h i n e tools and so Qbe — F A- F B C B— C A difference in fixed costs difference in variable costs If there are a number of machines to be considered, it is necessary to compare each pair of machines. Example of the use of break-even charts This example is intended to illustrate a method that could be employed to determine the costs involved.

The flat slideway has better load-bearing qualities than the other slideways. After a period of use, wear may have occurred owing to the sliding of the surfaces over each other. Jib strips are used to ensure the accurate fitting of the carriages to both the flat and dovetail slideways. The jib strips are tapered and can be adjusted to reduce excessive clearance caused by wear. The metal-to-metal contact on the vee, flat and dovetail types of guideway is normally cast iron to cast iron. The cast iron may have been heat treated (flame hardened) to increase its hardness, and the surfaces ground to obtain the accuracy required.

A problem when the slideways are machined on the casting is that, after the machine has been in service for some time and the slideways have become excessively worn, it is necessary to strip the entire machine down so that the slideways can be remachined. While the slideways are wearing the machine has been losing its accuracy. To overcome this difficulty there has been an introduction of premachined hardened steel guideways which are bolted on to the main casting. The slideways have special forms and, to reduce wear and maintain accuracy, balls or rollers are tools used to provide rolling contact rather than the sliding contact which previously occurred.

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