Confocal scanning optical microscopy and related imaging by Gordon S. Kino, Timothy R. Corle

By Gordon S. Kino, Timothy R. Corle

This publication presents a finished advent to the sector of scanning optical microscopy for scientists and engineers. The booklet concentrates in most cases on tools: the Confocal Scanning Optical Microscope (CSOM), and the Optical Interference Microscope (OIM). A entire dialogue of the speculation and layout of the Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscope (NSOM) is additionally given. The textual content discusses the sensible elements of creating a confocal scanning optical microscope or optical interference microscope, and the functions of those microscopes to part imaging, organic imaging, and semiconductor inspection and metrology.A entire theoretical dialogue of the intensity and transverse answer is given with emphasis put on the sensible result of the theoretical calculations and the way those can be utilized to aid comprehend the operation of those microscopes. Key beneficial properties * offers a finished creation to the sector of scanning optical microscopy for scientists and engineers * Explains many sensible functions of scanning optical and interference microscopy in such various fields as biology and semiconductor metrology * Discusses in theoretical phrases the beginning of the enhanced intensity and transverse solution of scanning optical and interference microscopes with emphasis at the useful result of the theoretical calculations * Considers the sensible features of creating a confocal scanning or interference microscope and explores many of the layout tradeoffs made for microscopes utilized in a number of functions * Discusses the speculation and layout of near-field optical microscopes * Explains section imaging within the scanning optical and interference microscopes

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In addition, only one lens is required, although this lens must have a relatively long working distance in order to accommodate the beamsplitter and reference mirror. A. 5, so that it is more difficult to work with. Nikon instruments makes a Mirau objective which is used by Wyko and Zygo corporations in their microscopes. It employs a glass beamsplitter with an objective compensated for aberrations. A high numerical aperture Mirau microscope has been built by Chim et al. at Stanford University, which they call the Mirau correlation microscope (MCM).

The focused reference spot acts much like the pinhole in a confocal microscope by limiting the area on the detector over which the beam reflected from the sample produces a signal. As shown in Fig. 30(a), when the object is in focus, the two spots at the detector overlap perfectly and the maximum signal output is obtained from the detector. As the sample moves out of focus, Fig. 30(b), the spots no longer overlap each other perfectly and there is a phase difference between the two beams due to their different path lengths.

The relationship between the CTF and the pupil function has some interesting implications. 12) where K = kx/kn sin 00. Thus there exists a finite passband in the spatial frequency domain within which a diffraction-limited system passes all frequency components without amplitude or phase distortion. At the boundary of this passband, the frequency response drops to zero, implying that the frequency components outside this passband are completely ignored. The CTF for a simple lens is illustrated in Fig.

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