Contracts, Scenarios and Prototypes: An Integrated Approach by Reinhold Ploesch

By Reinhold Ploesch

What's this e-book approximately? at first of the twenty first century, computing device systems―and specifically so- ware―play a huge function in our society. software program is contained in almost each technical machine that we use in way of life (e.g., mobile telephones and cars). in addition, pcs and their software program are used for relaxation reasons at domestic (the web and machine games), on the workplace (e.g., writing letters and order processing), and for extra complex projects corresponding to controlling metal vegetation or insuring flight protection. hence, the standard of software program (e.g., its correctness, re- skill, and potency) has develop into vital not just within the context of serious platforms (e.g., nuclear energy crops) but in addition for our complete society, from company to relaxation. software program engineering is the sensible software of medical wisdom for the competitively priced construction and use of fine quality software program [Pomberger96]. The self-discipline goals at constructing tools, suggestions, instruments, and criteria to meet those goals. The variety of tools and instruments to be had to the software program engineer these days is overwhelming; however, many software program initiatives fail―that is, don't meet their schedules, are over finances, don't meet the consumer wishes, or just have enormous caliber defects. the various attainable causes for this example contain bad undertaking administration, fallacious equipment and instruments utilized in the venture, and poorly constructed abilities of the partaking software program engineers.

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0 expressions may contain so-called let expressions. Sometimes a subexpression is used more than once in an expression. 0 will allow us to specify so-called Message expressions. Message expressions will allow us to guarantee that, for example, in a postcondition, a specific message has been sent to a specific receiver. Additionally, even the result values may be accessed. In the example given below, the postcondition ensures that method isGoodForAmount of class Customer was called in the body of the method with the appropriate parameter amount.

In this case, actions must be taken to transform the model into a valid state. The actions to be taken are not specified in OCL. This is a major difference compared to typical assertion languages as discussed in Chap. 2 where, usually, an exception is thrown in the case of an assertion violation. - OCL is not a programming language, so it is not possible to write program logic or flow control in OCL. Due to its declarative nature, not everything in the language is promised to be directly executable.

In this section, we use the criteria to evaluate OCL. OCL has no implementation perspective. Therefore, it is not possible to provide assertion annotations in the implementation of a method (see BAS-1). OCL is meant to be side effect free, which is one of the major strengths of this language. The number of operations available on collections supersedes the possibilities as described in our language (see Sect. 4). Nevertheless, OCL does not take into consideration efficiency problems associated with assuring side effect free operations on collections.

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