By Ichiro Sunagawa
How do crystals nucleate and develop? Why and the way do crystals shape this sort of wide array of morphologies? those questions were posed because the 17th century, and are nonetheless extremely important for contemporary expertise and figuring out the Earth's inside and formation of minerals by way of dwelling organisms. together with a number case stories of complicated platforms, from diamond, calcite and pyrite to crystals shaped via biomineralization, this booklet establishes the atomic tactics in the back of crystal development.
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Additional resources for Crystals: Growth, Morphology, & Perfection
In utilizing single crystals for devices, it is necessary to grow single crystals containing a reduced dislocation density; however, the distribution of the dislocations in single crystals can serve as a reliable record of the growth process. Growth-induced dislocations may multiply during the post-growth process. 8 Interfaces tiply to form loop-like dislocation rings. This is an important mechanism in the multiplication of dislocations, and is referred to as a Frank–Read source. In this way, growth-induced dislocations move during the post-growth period and form energetically more stable accumulations of dislocations.
When changes occur in the gradient of the temperature and concentration, the interface morphology loses its stability, and the bulge will be enhanced. Morphological instability is stronger on rough, curved interfaces than on smooth, ﬂat interfaces. Unless cooperation of forces results in the suppression of interface instability, the instability will be enhanced as growth proceeds. As a result, periodic cellular structure, arrays of cusps, rod or lamellar structure, and further dendritic morphology will appear.
In contrast, a smooth interface takes a straight form truncating equi-thermal or equiconcentration lines. We shall discuss in this section whether the interface form can be maintained throughout the growth or not, what sort of instability will take place when the interface form is not maintained, and how these instabilities affect the morphology of crystals. Let us assume that a small bulge appears on a rough, curved interface, and that for some reason the interface morphology is altered. 17. Relation between interface and lines of equal concentration in the ambient phase when morphological instability occurs.