Cycling of mineral nutrients in agricultural ecosystems by M. J. Frissel

By M. J. Frissel

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16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. Input by feed for livestock Input by litter used indoors Transfer by consumption of harvested crops Transfer by grazing of forage Output of animal products Output by losses from animal and/or manure in stables and/or feed lots (Thus from any component before it reaches the soil) (can be split into: 6d, from droppings and 6 m, from manure) Output by manure (manure carried off or sold) Transfer by application of manure and/or waste (can be split into 8a and 8 b ) Transfer by droppings on grazed areas (can be split into 9a and 9 b ) Input by application of manure (can be split into 10a and 10b) Input by application of fertilizer Input by nitrogen fixation Input by application of litter, sludge and waste (can be split into 13a and 13b) Input by irrigation, sub-surface irrigation or flooding Note: capillary rise is not included Input by dry and wet deposition (rain, dust, bird droppings) Note: Nutrients taken up directly by plants from rain or atmosphere are accounted for in item 31 Transfer by weathering of soil mineral fraction Transfer by mineralization of soil organic fraction Output of primary products Output by denitrification Output by volatilization of ammonia Note: includes volatilization from manure, droppings and fertilizers (Thus from any material on or underneath the soil surface) Output by leaching Note: net effect (leaching minus capillary rise) Output of available nutrients by run-off Note: * Surface leaching' included Output by dust Transfer by fixation in soil mineral fraction Transfer by immobilization in soil organic fraction Transfer by plant products (including litter) remaining on the field (can be split into 26a and 26b) Transfer by seed for sowing Output by run-off of organic matter Symbols* (P(P(L- L) L) L) L) (L(L(L-> A), ( L - B ) ( L -> A ) , ( L -* B ) - A), - A ) - A ) - B) A), A) B) A) ( C - A) ( B - A) ( P (A- (A(A(A(A(A-C) (A->B) (Ρ - Α , Ρ » Β ) (Ρ-A) (Β- 31 T A B L E 3 (continued) Flux 29.

7 — 40+ — — — — — 4+ 33+ — 77 R E M O V A L S : 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 28. 30. Output by denitrification Output by volatilization of ammonia Output by leaching Output by run-off of available nutrients Output by dust Output by organic matter, removed by run-off . Transfer by net uptake from soil by plant TOTAL t t — — SUPPLIES: SUPPLIES-REMOVALS + 3 14? 4 -11 * ^Arbitrarily derived from Newbould and Floate-3 (assumed 1/4 paddock, 3/4 grassland) by editor for classification purposes. 47 TABLE 9 (continued) System type: Extensive livestock Summary of nutrient flows (units: kg ha Type of farm or ecosystem or type of part of a farm or ecosystem, ref.

10b. 13b. 25. 26b. R E M O V A L S : 17. 28. Transfer by application and/or waste Transfer by droppings on grazed areas Input by application of manure Input by application of litter, sludge and waste Transfer by immobilization in soil organic fraction Transfer by plant products remaining on field . 2 Transfer by mineralization of soil organic fraction Output by organic matter, removed by run-off . 5 t — t - Changes in amount of soil minerals SUPPLY: REMOVAL: 24. 16. Transfer by fixation in soil mineral fraction .

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