Digital Photogrammetry: Theory and Applications by Wilfried Linder

By Wilfried Linder

Photogrammetry is a technological know-how established expertise with greater than a century of heritage and improvement. in this time, the recommendations used to get information regarding items represented in pictures have replaced dramatically from natural optic­ mechanical apparatus to an absolutely electronic workflow in our days. Parallel to this, the dealing with turned more straightforward, and so its attainable additionally for non-photogrammetrists to take advantage of those tools this present day. This e-book is mainly written for strength clients that have no photogram­ metric schooling yet want to use the robust features every now and then or in smaller initiatives: Geographers, Geologists, Cartographers, wooded area Engineers who want to come into the attention-grabbing box of photogrammetry through "learning by way of doing". hence, this publication isn't a textbook - for extra and deeper the­ ory, there exists much ofliterature, and it is recommended to exploit a few ofthis. a different advice could be given to the latest e-book from KONECNY (2002) for simple conception and the mathematical backgrounds or to the e-book from SCHENK (1999) for the actual scenario in electronic photogrammetry. for a fast reference specifically to algorithms and technical phrases see additionally the Photogrammetric advisor from ALBERTZ & KREILING (1989). This ebook contains a CD-ROM which incorporates all you wish from software program and knowledge to benefit in regards to the quite a few equipment from the start (scanning of the pho­ tos) to ultimate items like ortho pictures or mosaics.

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Before going on with practical exercises, let's talk about some basics of stereoscopic viewing. May be that you are more familiar with the term "stereo" in association with music: It gives you a spatial impression like sitting in front of an orchestra. The reason is that you receive the sound with two ears, sounds coming from the right with your right ear, sounds coming from the left with your left ear. As a result, both acoustic signals are slightly different and are combined in your brain to obtain a spatial impression.

Mathematically such a function can unequivocally be fixed by only two points (observations). Part (a) shows this, but you can also see that wrong observations lead to a bad result. Part (b) illustrates an over-determination by three measured points, and as a result, the parameters of the function can be calculated using a least squares adjustment, furthermore the residuals r can be calculated for every point. These gives us an idea about the quality of the observations, but in most cases we cannot decide what point is really bad because the residuals vary not very much.

In this way, the radiometric self-calibration of the scanner is supported. L orientation of photo on the scanner CCO array I» ~ '< 3 o < ~ L a scan area (gla s plate) L model area flight direction Fig. 7: Flatbed DTP scanner and suggested positions of the photos. 3 Scanning of photos 23 strip 1 L L L strip 2 L L L I+- side inforrnation fliglht dire ction striD 3 L L L Fig. 8: All photos of a block should be scanned in the orientation in which they form the block, regardless to the flight direction.

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