By Shun-ichiro Karato, Alessandro Forte, Robert Liebermann, Guy Masters, Lars Stixrude
Released via the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Geophysical Monograph sequence, quantity 117.
Earth is a dynamically evolving planet with large-scale circulate and chemical differentiation taking place all through background. those strategies comprise not just mantle convection and similar phenomena but additionally middle procedures that experience an incredible impression at the new release of the magnetic box. Deep procedures in Earth, although, have lengthy been concerns for hypothesis with no many observational constraints. thankfully, over the past 10 years or so this example has replaced dramatically. improvements within the capability of excessive answer seismology to probe the superb constructions of Earth's deep inside (via seismic tomography, for instance) and technical advances in mineral and rock physics, that have supplied new and enhanced info bases for analyzing seismological observations, are crucial advancements.
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Additional resources for Earth's Deep Interior: Mineral Physics and Tomography From the Atomic to the Global Scale (Geophysical Monograph Series)
From (16) we thus see that C m = 0 yields a direct relationship between 670 topography and seismic velocity anomalies at the same depth. W e may thus explicitly impose the rela tionship (12) in which we assume that the 670 km seis mic discontinuity is a manifestation of the equilibrium phase-change of spinel in the upper mantle to its postspinel phases in the lower mantle. W e in effect make the assumption that the 670 topography and the seis mic velocity anomalies are both mainly due to lateral temperature variations.
Much of the structure in the inner core has been attributed to vari ations in seismic anisotropy [see, Creager, this volume], although the origin of this anisotropy is unknown. Seis mology also provides us with an estimate of the radial density profile in the liquid core, which is typically 10% lower than the estimate for pure iron, based shock-wave experiments [Jeanloz, 1979]. Light alloying elements 4 Earth's Deep Interior: Mineral Physics and Tomography From the Atomic to the Global Scale Geophysical Monograph 117 Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union 37 38 DYNAMICS OF THE EARTH'S CORE in the liquid core are required to explain the density deficit, but the identity of the major light element(s) is unknown.
L. Woodward, Seismic-geodynamic constraints on vertical flow between the upper and lower mantle: The dynamics of the 670 km seismic discontinuity, in The Fluid Dynamics of Astrophysics and Geophysics, vol. 7, Earth's Deep Interior, edited by D. Crossley, pp. , 1997a. L. Woodward, Seismic-geodynamic con straints on three-dimensional structure, vertical flow, and heat transfer in the mantle, J. Geophys. , 102, 1798117994, 1997b. Forte, A. , A. M. Dziewonski, and R. L. Woodward, Aspherical structure of the mantle, tectonic plate motions, nonhydrostatic geoid, and topography of the core-mantle boundary, in Dynamics of the Earth's Deep Interior and Earth Rotation, Geophys.