By Joseph P. Hornak
This encyclopedia is the 1st to provide in-depth assurance of imaging technology and know-how from a various variety of functions, recommendations and fields of study.
Today imaging is utilized by astronomers to map far-off galaxies, oceanographers to map the ocean ground, chemists to map the distribution of atoms on a floor, physicians to map the performance of the mind and electric engineers to map electromagnetic fields round energy strains. With this encyclopedia, scientists, engineers and physicians can comprehend extra in regards to the technology and expertise at the back of the imaging suggestions they're at present utilizing and study the newest technologies.
Diverse insurance bargains the facility to profit from functions in archeology, aviation, astronomy, chemistry, forensics, geography, arithmetic, drugs, meteorology, microscopy, oceanography, surveillance and extra ... and the way to use these imaging ideas to many alternative problems.
Also to be had in a easy, on-line variation the recent digital model of the Encyclopedia, obtainable via Wiley InterScience, bargains stronger searching, looking and cross-referencing functions. stopover at www.interscience.wiley.com/eist
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Additional info for Encyclopedia of Imaging Science & Technology 2 volume set
To achieve optimum control of the volume of the depletion layer in the constant C mode, the dc bias must be equal to the flatband voltage of the tip–sample MOS capacitor (17). The feedback loop of the constant C mode produces a signal that changes monotonically as carrier concentration changes only for dopant gradients in like-type semiconductors. When a p–n junction is present, the changes in sign of the SCM signal when transiting between n-type and p-type material cause the feedback loop to saturate near the junction.
Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 406 (1990). 6. R. P. Welty and J. M. Martinis, IEEE Trans. Magn. 27, 2924 (1991). 7. N. , IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 35, 2414 (1988). 8. M. Radparvar, IEEE Trans. Appl. Superconductivity 4, 87 (1994). C CAPACITIVE PROBE MICROSCOPY of cross-sectioned transistors for process failure analysis. Semiconductors other than silicon, such as InP/InGaAsP buried heterostructure lasers, have also been imaged with SCM. Another application that has encouraged the development of commercial SCMs is the need for quantitative two-dimensional (2-D) carrier profiling of silicon transistors.
For samples that do not contain p–n junctions, the constant C mode of SCM, which automatically adjusts Vac , can be used. Samples that contain p–n junctions are usually imaged in constant V mode, which uses a fixed value of Vac . Selecting the optimal value of the dc bias is also important in obtaining good carrier profiles. The SCM signal varies with dc bias, and a peak occurs near the flatband voltage of the sample surface. For samples without p–n junctions, Vdc is usually selected so that the peak SCM response is obtained when the tip is contacting the most lightly doped region of the sample.