By Barry Max Brandenberger

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1 6) where nA and n8 are the outlet molar flow rates from the reactor; nA and n8 are the molar hold-up inside the reactor ; nAJ and n81 are the molar feed flow rates and V is the reactor active volume which is assumed constant. If in addition we use the assumption that the inlet and outlet volumetric flow rates are constant and equal to q m 3/h in addition to the assumption of perfect mixing which implies that concen trations of A, B at all poi nts within the active volume of the reactor are equal and equal to the o u tput concentrations.

Obviously, if th� system is exposed to continuous external disturbances it may not reach a time independent state. Also, if the system has some inherent instability, then it may not reach a time independent state. e. a step change or a square function as shown in Figure 1 . ). In addition we assume at the beginning that the system has a unique time-independent state for certain given time-independent input parameters. With all these very restrictive assumptions introduced for the sake of simplicity in this introductory part of the book, the system may have two different types of time-independent states depending on the nature of the system itself.

It is this closed loop controlled system which is presented in full details in this section for both the autonomous and non-autonomous (externally forced) cases. This case i s used to demonstrate to the re ade r much o f the bifurcation and chaotic patterns of behaviour presented in chapter 2. Also, more details regarding the structure of the chaotic region and the effect of homoclinicity on chaotic behaviour are presented and discussed in as simple a manner as possible. The use of a relatively simple bubbling fluidized bed catalytic reactor as a generic model, is better than the use of the CSTR model for, although it is not mathematically more complicated than the CSTR model, it is physically richer and more relevant to catalytic processes because of the following reasons: 1 ) As briefly stated above, from a mathematical complexity point of view, it is no more complex than the CSTR.