By Nick Bahrami
Tight fuel reservoirs have very low permeability and porosity, which can't be produced at low-cost move premiums until the good is successfully inspired and accomplished utilizing complicated and optimized applied sciences. low-budget creation at the foundation of tight fuel reservoirs is demanding mostly, not just because of their very low permeability but in addition to numerous diverse types of formation harm that may take place in the course of drilling, crowning glory, stimulation, and construction operations.
This research demonstrates intimately the results of alternative good and reservoir static and dynamic parameters that impression harm mechanisms and good productiveness in tight fuel reservoirs. Geomechanics, petrophysics, construction and reservoir engineering services for reservoir characterization is mixed with a reservoir simulation technique and middle research experiments to appreciate the optimal process for tight fuel improvement, offering more advantageous good productiveness and fuel recovery.
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Extra info for Evaluating Factors Controlling Damage and Productivity in Tight Gas Reservoirs (Springer Theses)
The results indicate that the relative permeability to water is sig-nificantly lower compared with the relative permeability to gas (typical behaviourin water sensitive formations). The core flooding experiment also indicated the irreducible water saturation of 60 %. For the core sample, air-mercury capillary pressure data are also analysed and using some conversion factors, the gas–water capillary pressure data could be determined. 6 Hydraulic Fracturing Hydraulic fracturing in the tight gas wells had 3–4 fracturing stages, with average maximum pumping pressure of 10,000 psia, average pump rate of 20 bbl/min, average total proppant per stage of 35,000 lbs, and average total liquid injected per stage of 2,500 bbls.
In the case of no liquid leak-off into the tight formation (case A), the water blocking skin is zero. In the case of significant water leak-off into the formation, skin is found to be positive. The results highlight the fact that phase trap related damage due to water leak-off into the tight gas reservoir causes positive skin factor, and significant reduction in gas production rate and gas recovery. 4 Overbalanced and Underbalanced Drilling The model is run at core scale, to understand the effect of wellbore pressure on water invasion during overbalanced, balanced and underbalanced drilling.
9 Well Production History (Pre-Frac and Post-Frac) 47 causing significant damage to reservoir permeability). Therefore it could be concluded that the leak-off of water into the tight sand gas reservoir during fracturing might be the reason for the low well productivity after stimulation. In term of hydraulic fractures performance, the fracturing job was not successful. The well may produce gas at a commercial rate using massive hydraulic fracturing and creating large treated zone volume, which might be achieved by use of non-damaging fracturing liquid, increasing numbers of fracturing stages (For instance 10–20 fracturing stages instead of 3–4), higher pumping rates of fracturing fluid (For instance 60–80 bbl/min instead of 20 bbl/min) and larger volumes of liquid and proppant injection per stage.