By M.S. Paterson
The first goal of this monograph is to give the present wisdom of brittle houses of rocks as decided in laboratory experiments. The primary points of brittle habit are defined with specific cognizance to the basic actual elements. therefore, the publication offers an invaluable advent to the fundamentals of rock houses for engineering and earth technological know-how purposes. in addition, it serves as a advisor for graduate scholars and non experts by way of providing the suitable historical past fabric and the place it may be came across. For the hot version an additional bankruptcy has been further, and nearly half the chapters were greatly revised and the others up to date.
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Additional info for Experimental Rock Deformation - The Brittle Field
10. Relation between confining pressure and inclination () of shear fracture to compression direction in Westerly granite; closed circle: observed angle; open circle: angle calculated from coefficien t of in ternal friction > according to () = 1/4 1T - 1/2 >. (After Mogi, 1966a) O~O------1~ OO ~--~2~ OO ~----3~OO ------4~OO ~ Confining Pressure 0 3 , MPa crepancy is greater in extension tests (Mogi, 1967a). It has even been suggested that the orientation of the shear fractures in uniaxial compression tests is determined mainly by a tendency for the fracture to run diagonally across the specimen from one end to the other (Paul and Gangal, 1967 ; Paul, 1968, p.
The preceding variations in strength reflect many factors that cannot be analysed in detail in a general treatment. These factors include Observed Stresses at Brittle Failure 23 mineral composition, porosity, state of alteration or weathering, and prior history affecting microstructural details such as the density and distribution of microcracks. For systematic studies on the influence of porosity, see Dunn, La Fountain, and Jackson (1973), Hoshino (1974), Gangi and Heinze (1976), and Friedman (1977).
1946; Hobbs, 1964a; Herel, 1966; Mogi, 1966a; Hawkes and Mellor, 1970; Bordia, 1971; Green and Perkins, 1972; Starfield and Wawersik, 1972; Dhir and Sangha, 1973); see Figure 12. Consequently, it is usually recommended that in to IL ::E 270 •g, c:: !! , 'iii OJ 250 ii E 0 u .. 240 .!! -H-! 2 Length: Diameter 3 4 Ratio Fig. 12. 5:1 (Hawkes and Mellor, 1970). Jaeger (1973) also showed that the length:diameter ratio affects the crushing strength under various conditions of non-uniform loading. The chief reason for the lid dependence clearly lies in the perturbation of the nominally homogeneous stress field by boundary effects at the contact with the platens, frictional constraint being one of the most important factors; Peng (1971) demonstrated such heterogeneity by strain measurements on granite and steel with different end conditions.