By Robert C. Galgano
Feast of Souls explores local peoples' responses to Spanish makes an attempt to problem and change conventional non secular practices in Florida and New Mexico. In those areas, Franciscan missions have been the first mechanism for either religious and secular colonization within the 17th century.
By 1700, there have been merely approximately 1,000 Spaniards in Florida and 3,000 in New Mexico; the rookies depended on Indians for power converts, workers, buying and selling companions, and armed forces allies. yet, the Spaniards' very presence between indigenous peoples created epidemiological, political, fabric, and financial crises in local communities.
Natives' reactions in New Mexico and Florida various extensively yet they still sought to manage their very own destinies. a few teams embraced the conquerors' choices on their lonesome phrases and a few rejected them absolutely. a few even fled or rebelled, as in Florida in 1656 and New Mexico in 1680. Sifting via Spanish colonial bills and smooth archaeological and architectural investigations, Robert Galgano can pay equivalent recognition to the perspectives of the novices and the natives whereas emphasizing the Franciscans' views over these of the Spanish political leadership.
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Extra info for Feast of Souls: Indians and Spaniards in the Seventeenth-Century Missions of Florida and New Mexico
Saints who failed to deliver their ends of spiritual bargains found themselves abandoned for saints with better promise. Hopeful Spaniards chose their patrons by interpreting signs, assessing the value of saints’ accumulated favors, or casting lots. Lotteries were providential. Over time, saints showed their preferences by intervening on behalf of particular people or aiding in specific situations. 12 Christian devotion was in perpetual flux. Spaniards constantly adapted to new spiritual agents, applied spiritual power to broader concerns and interests, and co-opted official church tenets for local purposes.
He ordered that soldiers cut off one foot of every male over the age of twenty-five and sentenced all adults over twelve to twenty years of servitude. The girls he entrusted to the discretion of the father commissary and the boys to his sargento mayor (major) so that they might learn Christianity. 7 Spanish military might forced colonial governance on the Pueblos but did little to seduce them to the Spaniards’ faith. As fray Francisco de Zamora observed, Spanish behavior discredited Christian teachings and undermined the friars’ attempts to convert the Pueblos.
They diffused potentially embarrassing conundrums, forgave mortal sins, and attended to the needs of the community. With each service rendered, the friars’ reputation grew. Soon local people entrusted delicate matters to the Franciscans who had proven themselves up to the task. They also entrusted important religious matters to the Franciscans. The Spanish faithful contended that the “gray robes” were closer to God, and therefore prayers they said for the dead, for the ill, or for those souls laden with sin were more likely to be heard and granted.