Fertilization in Higher Plants: Molecular and Cytological by N. Bagni, A. Tassoni, M. Franceschetti (auth.), Prof. Dr.

By N. Bagni, A. Tassoni, M. Franceschetti (auth.), Prof. Dr. Mauro Cresti, Dr. Giampiero Cai, Dr. Alessandra Moscatelli (eds.)

Biotechnological equipment are establishing new methods in plant breeding. they permit novel thoughts for making improvements to crop productiveness and caliber, specifically within the agrofood region. The molecular mechanisms underlying those biotechnological methods are awarded right here.
Topics incorporated are: pollen improvement, pollen tube progress, macrosporogenesis and fertilization and the consequences of insecticides on sexual plant copy.
Fertilization in greater crops is a fancy approach inclusive of occasions, the fusion of the egg with one sperm mobile leading to the diploid zygote, and the fusion of embryosac nuclei with one other sperm mobile, resulting in a triploid endosperm. This "double fertilization" is preceded through the pollination strategy and a long-lasting interplay among the dipoid pistil and the haploid pollen tube (progamic phase). Fertilization of flowering vegetation leads to the formation of seeds and end result, our easy nutrition supply.

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Each of the three TAG-storing organelles (seed oil bodies, pollen intracellular oil bodies and tapetal cytoplasmic lipid bodies) and the non-TAG storing tapetal elaioplasts have unique and distinct morphological characteristics as discussed further in this Chapter and illustrated in Fig. 1. Fig. 1 A-D. Electron micrographs of the four different types of lipid-storing organelles in Brassica napus anther tapetum, pollen grain and seed cells. A tapetal elaioplast showing the surrounding double plastidial membrane (dm) and the densely packed lipid droplets (also called plastoglobuli).

The oleosin-like proteins appear to be co-translationally targeted to the ER (Murphy and Ross, 1998), which is consistent with the likely biogenesis of the tapetal-specific cytoplasmic lipid bodies from ER membranes. , 1997). , 1997). , 1997). e. jasmonic acid) for the final stages of pollen maturation and anther dehiscence (McConn and Browse, 1996). , 1991b; Dickinson and Lewis, 1973). Then they are deposited and attached to the exine walls and only there are they subject to a complete rupture (Dickinson and Lewis, 1973; Murphy and Ross, 1998).

Seed oil body characterised by a homogeneous TAG-filled space that is bounded by an annulus of oleosin proteins (01), as shown by the immunolocalisation using a polyclonal antibody raised against seed-specific Brassica napus oleosins. lm. D pollen intracellular oil body which is also homogeneosly packed with TAGs and is encircled by ER cisternae, as shown by the ribosomes (r) that are oriented towards the cytoplasmic face. lm. lu, lumen; r, ribosomes; er, endoplasmic reticulum; dm, double plastidial membrane; olp, tapetal-specific oleosin-like proteins; 01 seed-specific oleosins Legend: dm, double membrane; er, endoplasmic reticulum; 01, oleosin; olp, oleosin-like protein; r, ribosome 26 P.

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