By Peter G. Read
Since Gemmology was released, readers have used it to realize an in-depth appreciation of the technological know-how of gemmology, its heritage, and perform. This 3rd version has been thoroughly revised to hide the most recent tools of gem enhancement and identity, in addition to the newest try tools and laboratory options. Gemmology serves as a useful reference advisor for gemmologists, execs, and scholars, and is a useful textual content for an individual within the gemmological occupation. additionally incorporated are info of the Gemmological Association’s origin path including recommendation on exam techniques.
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Extra resources for Gemmology
Those elements containing neutrons in excess of their normal number are called isotopes. On the rare occasion when the nucleus of hydrogen contains a neutron, it is called deuterium, which is the isotope of hydrogen. g. for oxygen Z ϭ 8). 0 u for short). 011 u. When atoms combine together they form a new entity which is called a molecule. The molecule is the smallest part of a substance which can have a separate stable existence. Groups of molecules formed by the combination of different elements are called compounds.
The subdivision is based on the different degrees of symmetry (as speciﬁed by the elements of symmetry) of the crystals within each system. The seven crystal systems themselves are classiﬁed in terms of the number of their crystal axes, their relative lengths and the angles between them. The elements of symmetry included in the following descriptions of the seven crystal systems refer to the highest level of symmetry in each case (it should be remembered that crystals do form with lower levels of symmetry and may sometimes have no centre of symmetry at all).
Copper, with a valency of one, forms cuprous compounds; with a valency of two it forms cupric compounds. e. they have a zero valency). These are virtually inert elements in that they do not easily form compounds with other elements. Examples are the so-called ‘noble’ gases helium (two electrons), and neon, argon, krypton, xenon and radon (eight electrons). Gold, silver, platinum and the platinum group metals are also termed ‘noble’ (although they do not have stable valency shells) because they are relatively resistant to chemical action and, except for silver, do not tarnish in air or water.