By Milton H. Saier Jr. (auth.), Jane K. Setlow (eds.)
Over the previous decade, our laboratory and others were occupied with molecular archaeological reviews aimed toward revealing the origins and evolutionary histories of permeases (1). those reviews have printed that numerous diverse households, outlined at the foundation of series similarities, arose independently of one another, at assorted instances in evolutionary historical past, following diversified routes. whilst entire microbial genomes first turned on hand for research, we tailored p- current software program and designed new courses that allowed us fast to spot possible transmembrane proteins, estimate their topologies and make sure the possibility that they functionality in shipping (2). This paintings allowed us to extend previously-recognized households and to spot dozens of latest households. All of this paintings then led us to aim to layout a rational yet accomplished type approach that might be appropriate to the full supplement of delivery platforms present in all dwelling organisms (3). The type process that we have got devised is predicated totally on mode of shipping and effort coupling mechanism, secondarily on molecular phylogeny, and finally at the substrate specificities of the person permeases (4).
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Funct. 22, 555-563. CYTOKINE ACTIVATION OF TRANSCRIPTION Kerri A. Mowen and Michael David Division of Biology, Molecular Biology Section University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093 INTRODUCTION Cytokines represent a group of transiently-expressed, low molecular weight molecules that fulfill a vital role in intercellular communication, particularly in the immune system. Cytokines regulate numerous physiological and pathological events such as lymphocyte development and activation, programmed cell death and inflammatory processes.