Handbook of Quantitative Studies of Science and Technology by A.F.J. van Raan (Eds.)

By A.F.J. van Raan (Eds.)

Quantitative stories of technological know-how and know-how characterize the study box of usage of mathematical, statistical, and data-analytical tools and strategies for collecting, dealing with, examining, and predicting numerous good points of the technological know-how and expertise company, corresponding to functionality, improvement, and dynamics. the sphere has either strongly constructed utilized examine in addition to uncomplicated study features. The critical function of this guide is to give this wide selection of issues in enough intensity to provide readers a pretty systematic realizing of the area of latest quantitative reviews of technology and expertise, a website which includes concept, tools and methods, and functions. In addressing this area, the instruction manual goals at various teams of readers: these undertaking learn within the box of technology and expertise, together with (graduate) scholars, and people who are to exploit result of the paintings provided during this e-book

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1 0 Thus, it is often not clear that citations provide for a quality adjustment. There are also a number of practical problems that have to be considered in constructing citation counts. First, there is a highly uncertain lag (more so than between research activity and output) between date of publication and date of citation. Second, because of this lag it may only be possible to study scientific production which occurred some years in the past. For example, work written in 1979 probably only made it into print by 1981 and only began to be cited in articles written in 1982, which in turn only made it into print in 1984.

G. Levin optimistic policy scenarios. In an economic model, the quantity of scientific research produced by a scientist depends on benefits and costs. Age lowers the benefits of engaging in research because of the finiteness of life. Therefore, one way to counter the decline associated with age is to lower costs by targeting increased resources to middle-aged and older scientists. Sociologists hypothesize that the research effort depends upon recognition and resources. For many scientists both resources and recognition decline as the career unfolds.

Sample selection bias may exist if, as is commonly done, studies focus exclusively on scientists located at elite institutions. The problem with this elite approach is that it may oversample productive "oldsters" relative to productive "youngsters," since elite universities hire many young professors but retain only the best. Because age and "ability" (which cannot be measured) are positively related in the elite sector, one may conclude that there is little or no relationship between age and productivity when a relationship may indeed be present.

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