Heads of State: Icons, Power, and Politics in the Ancient by Denise Y Arnold

By Denise Y Arnold

The human head has had very important political, ritual and symbolic meanings all through Andean background. students have spoken of captured and trophy heads, curated crania, symbolic flying heads, head imagery on pots and on stone, head-shaped vessels, and linguistic references to the pinnacle. during this synthesizing paintings, cultural anthropologist Denise Arnold and archaeologist Christine Hastorf research the cult of heads within the Andes—past and present—to boost a conception of its position in indigenous cultural perform and its dating to political structures. utilizing ethnographic and archaeological fieldwork, highland-lowland comparisons, archival records, oral histories, and formality texts, the authors draw from Marx, Mauss, Foucault, Assadourian, Viveiros del Castro and different theorists to teach how heads form and signify strength, violence, fertility, identification, and economic climate in South American cultures.

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Medical practitioners undoubtedly knew their philosophies, and it is clear enough from the use of terminology that they understood the classical dar´sana-s in technical detail. ”37 Thus Åyus (life) is not a simple form of being, but the integration of several components. The body (´sar¯ ıra) is constituted of four atomic substances (bh¯uta): earth (pÓ rthv¯ ı), water (ap), fire (tejas), and wind (v¯ayu); and three allpervasive substances: space (¯ak¯as´ a), time (k¯ala), and extension (dis). The mind (manas, sattva) is localised in the body.

18 There is a total of one hundred and fifty chapters dealing with specific subjects. Su´sruta SaÓmhit¯a The Su´sruta SaÓmhit¯a is distinguished as being the earliest known treatise dealing extensively with surgery, an area that is treated lightly by Caraka. 38 Foundations Its excellence lies in its rational and systematic approach to the many subjects covered in the field. Its origins are obscure; the extant work is a recension by the alchemist N¯ag¯arjuna from an earlier text. d. 19 The Su´sruta SaÓmhit¯a affirms the purpose of Åyurveda as combining the cure of disease with the preservation of health to ensure a long, happy, and useful life.

Its origins are obscure; the extant work is a recension by the alchemist N¯ag¯arjuna from an earlier text. d. 19 The Su´sruta SaÓmhit¯a affirms the purpose of Åyurveda as combining the cure of disease with the preservation of health to ensure a long, happy, and useful life. 20 The Su´sruta SaÓmhit¯a has one hundred and twenty chapters in five divisions. 21 Indian surgery owes a dubious debt to Vedic sacrifices, which supplied good knowledge of comparative anatomy. Su´sruta’s skills in practical surgery were based on his knowledge of practical anatomy.

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