By Courtney A. Young
Hydrometallurgy 2008 proudly takes its position because the most recent, complete ebook released during this box. Following the culture of the former overseas symposiums, this source tackles the latest in basic and secondary source restoration with sections on environmental hydrometallurgy, examine and commercial purposes, base and invaluable metals, and leaching.
Case histories from all over the world supply a hands-on examine how leaders are fixing difficulties and atmosphere new standards.
Petrus van Staden stocks his insights on minerals biotechnology. John Canterford explores plant layout and operation. Gordon Bacon discusses the demanding situations of plant start-ups, and John Marsden bargains useful suggestions for lowering power intake in all points of unit operations. Bob Shoemaker, one of many world’s most precious specialists on worthwhile steel restoration, displays on advancements and classes discovered in the course of his part century within the business.
Hundred of alternative authors supply insights on acid rock drainage, waste water and source restoration, method improvement and modeling, heap leaching, the long run function of hydrometallurgy, and numerous different well timed, vital subjects.
Generously illustrated with charts, graphs, and pictures, Hydrometallurgy 2008 is a needs to learn for researchers, teachers, scholars, directors, and govt and commercial gamers who are looking to remain at the innovative of this not easy and quickly evolving field.
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Additional resources for Hydrometallurgy 2008: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium
McNulty 1998, in his seminal paper, informed us all about the draw backs to starting plants with new technologies. The plant start-up and ramp-up can be measured by comparing the plant performance to the ramp-up curve. The ramp-up curve is usually a plot of production in units on the vertical axis (ordinate) and the time units on the horizontal axis (abscissa). Care must be taken because there are four or five curves that are applicable: • The standard, plant production per unit time period, • The plant feed throughput per unit time period, • The plant recovery in product per unit time period, • The product on specification percentages per unit time period, and • The production cost per unit product per unit time period.
Some so-called new technologies are easy to discount such as the use of citrus fruit pith as an “ion exchange” medium for nickel/cobalt separation. Others, such as specific applications of microwaves and ultrasonics, appear to have a measurable potential and niche markets are likely to be established in the longer term. There are, however, many engineering and operational challenges to be overcome. In terms of the viability of proposed new processing technologies, the clear message is as follows: “You may understand the chemistry/metallurgy, but if you cannot engineer and control it, then you do not have a real process”.
Nothing we do is without some form of risk, and in terms of risk analysis, the ideal status is known as ALARP – As Low As Reasonably Practical. This should always be our objective. WHY DO PROBLEMS ARISE AND HOW TO OVERCOME THEM Taking a fairly simplistic approach, the major sources of potential problems can be divided into three main categories: x x x Project People Patents The first two categories can be further sub-divided, while the third category is a factor that is becoming more significant.