Introduction to Ore-Forming Processes by Laurence Robb

By Laurence Robb

Introduction to Ore-Forming Processes is the 1st senior undergraduate – postgraduate textbook to concentration in particular at the multiplicity of geological approaches that bring about the formation of mineral deposits.

  • Opens with an summary of magmatic ore-forming processes
  • Moves systematically via hydrothermal and sedimentary metallogenic environments, masking because it does the total gamut of mineral deposit varieties, together with the fossil fuels and supergene ores
  • The ultimate bankruptcy relates metallogeny to international tectonics via interpreting the distribution of mineral deposits in house and time
  • Boxed examples of global recognized ore deposits are featured all through supplying context and relevance to the process-oriented descriptions of ore genesis
  • Brings the self-discipline of monetary geology again into the area of traditional mainstream earth technological know-how through emphasizing the truth that mineral deposits are easily one of many many average wonders of geological method and evolution.

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Where a felsic magma is derived from melting of a sedimentary or supracrustal protolith (termed S-type granites), associated ore deposits are characterized by concentrations of metals such as Sn, W, U, and Th. Where it is derived from melting of older igneous protoliths in the crust (I-type granite) the ore association is typified by metals such as Cu, Mo, Pb, Zn, and Au. 4 below and again in Chapter 2. Alkaline magmas and kimberlite Although most magma compositions can be represented by the basalt–andesite–rhyolite spectrum, some deviate from this trend and are compositionally unusual.

Diamondiferous kimberlites must also have been emplaced during the Archean, since the Witwatersrand conglomerates in South Africa, for example, are known to contain green detrital diamonds. To further complicate the story, the diamonds themselves tend to be much older than their kimberlitic host rocks and range in age from 1500 to 3000Ma, indicating that they have resided in the mantle for considerable periods of time prior to their eruption onto the Earth’s surface. , 1984). Diamond xenocrysts occur either as isolated single crystals in the kimberlitic matrix or as minerals within discrete xenoliths of either peridotite (P-type diamonds – the more common) or eclogite (E-type diamonds).

The enhanced concentration of these metals in each case is related to the fact that the source materials from which the basalt formed must likewise have been enriched in those constituents. In addition, enhanced abundances also reflect the chemical affinity that these metals have for the major elements that characterize a basaltic magma (Mg and Fe) and dictate its mineral composition (olivine and the pyroxenes). The chemical affinity that one element has for another is related to their atomic properties as reflected by their relative positions in the periodic table (see Figure 4, Introduction).

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