Kimberlites: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Petrology by Roger H. Mitchell

By Roger H. Mitchell

It is a publication concerning the petrology of kimberlites. it isn't approximately higher mantle xenoliths, diamonds, or prospecting for kimberlites. the thing of the publication is to supply a complete survey and critique of the advances which were made in kimberlite reviews during the last twenty-five years. Kimberlites are infrequent rock kinds; even though, their relative obscurity is overriden by way of their financial and petrological value to a point which isn't shared with the commoner types of igneous rocks. Kimberlites are hence of curiosity to a various workforce of earth scientists, starting from isotope g~ochemists taken with the evolution of the mantle, to volcanologists thinking about the origins of diatremes, to exploration geologists looking new occurrences of the diamondiferous kinds. a standard issue necessary to all of those actions is an intensive figuring out of the features of kimberlites. For the petrologist, kimberlites are fascinating and not easy gadgets for research. Their petrographic range, advanced mineralogy and geochemistry, and strange type of intrusion supply unending possibilities for exciting speculation and conjecture bearing on their foundation and evolution. Kimberlites are part of a large spectrum of continental intra-cratonic magmatism. in simple terms by way of knowing the entire elements of this job intimately may well we make growth in our realizing of the entire.

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6. Darntjernite ( = damkjernite = alniiite), Fen Complex, southern Norway. This rock is an example of a "central complex kimberlite" (Dawson 1966, l967a), and consists of phenocrysts of zoned and mantled aluminous salite (p), titanian phlogopite (m), and macrocrysts of anhedral olivine (ol), set in a matrix of Mg-rich biotite, Ti-Al salite, ferropargasite spinel, and calcite. ) which implies that melilite, now replaced by calcite, is an essential mineral of kimberlite. 4) . This definition embraces damkjemite.

This magma, lacking in other megacrysts, rich in calcite and containing evolved spinels, represents a differentiate of a kimbeditic magma and cannot be regarded as being representative of primary kimberlitic liquids. 2) has been discredited as a possible extrusive equivalent of kimberlite. 2. Pyroclastic Rocks The only known examples of kimberlite pipes surrounded by the remnants of tuff rings or tuff cones are found at Kasami, Mali (Hawthorne 1975), and the lgwisi Hills, Tanzania (Reid et al. 1975).

The Premier carbonate dikes, the Wesselton sills, and carbonate-rich ocellular dikes. These rocks would be termed carbonatites using the petrographic classification of Heinrich (1966). They have, however, very different mineralogies, antecedents, and comagmatic rocks to the carbonatites of alkaline rock complexes, and are better termed calcite-kimberlites to reflect this petrogenetic difference (Mitchell 1979a). If the megacryst suite is unrelated to kimberlite, then it follows that definitions and classifications of kimberlite must be based solely upon minerals which are definitely known to have crystallized from the kimberlite magma.

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