By John D. Verhoeven
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Additional info for KNIFE Metallurgy of Steel for Bladesmiths and Others who Heat Treat and Forge Steel
Air cooling is often called normalizing. As the name implies, continuous cooling means that the steel temperature falls in a continuous manner rather than abruptly plummeting, as happens in quenching. Experiments show that on fast air cooling a 1095 steel will end up being fully pearlitic, but a 1060 steel will not. The 1060 steel will have ferrite in the prior austenite grain boundaries surrounded by pearlite, similar to that of Fig. 6. As cooling rates are increased above that of fast air cooling, bainite will begin to appear and a great variety of microstructures are possible involving mixtures of ferrite, pearlite, bainite and eventually martensite.
The carbide component consists of aligned filaments or particles as opposed to the aligned plates in pearlite. 11 Bainite occurs in two forms, upper bainite and lower bainite depending on the temperature where it forms. The carbides are finer in lower bainite and it can obtain strengths approaching martensite with toughness often better than tempered martensite having the same hardness. 12 A unique property of martensite is that it forms much more rapidly than any of the other austenite products, ferrite, cementite, pearlite or bainite.
B) 3000 kg load and tungsten carbide ball. 39 Brinell test is that it measures hardness over a much larger area than the Rockwell test which produces excellent averaging for materials with coarse microstructures, like cast irons. But this is also a disadvantage for application where the test piece must be small, such as the tooth on a gear. Another disadvantage is the test is not useful at the higher hardness ranges of steels. 2] for further discussion of hardness testing. 3 presents information form the American Society for Testing Materials listing HRC values measured on steel and the corresponding equivalent hardnesses of various other tests for steel.