By David A. Wharton
Frogs that freeze good, worms that dry out, and micro organism that live to tell the tale temperatures over 100°C are all organisms that experience an severe biology, which includes many facets in their body structure, ecology, and evolution. those organisms dwell in likely very unlikely areas and express interesting habit. during this pleasing account, the reader is taken on a journey of utmost environments, and proven the outstanding talents of organisms to outlive various severe stipulations, resembling low and high temperatures and desiccation. Examples comprise:
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Extra resources for Life at the Limits: Organisms in Extreme Environments
Desiccation is thus likely to be much more of a problem for a small organism than for a large organism. The organism cannot prevent desiccation by becoming completely impermeable to water – if the organism was impermeable to water, it would also not be able to breathe. There are no biological structures that are impermeable to water but permeable to oxygen. If water loss from the body is reduced by an impermeable skin or cuticle, there need to be openings, such as our noses or the pores in an insect’s cuticle (spiracles) or in the surface of a plant (stomata), which let the organism breathe.
This does not mean that there is no water but that rainfalls, and other inputs of water, are irregular and infrequent. 1). This includes semi-arid areas (annual precipitation of less than 600 millimetres), arid areas (less than 200 millimetres) and hyper-arid areas (less than 25 millimetres). Deserts form in the leeward side of mountain ranges, in inland areas which are remote from oceans and where dry stable air masses form, resisting convective currents which would bring rain. 1 The world’s major deserts.
Succulents also have the ability to store the carbon dioxide which is produced by their metabolism at night and reuse it during the day for photosynthesis. This recycling of carbon dioxide reduces the need to allow air into the plant and thus reduces the loss of water through transpiration. Many of the adaptations of desert plants have more to do with protecting the plant against excessive heat than with preventing water loss. The leaves of desert plants and the pads and stems of succulents are orientated with their thin edge facing the sun, reducing heat gain.