By John L. Harwood
This brief textual content is designed to supply uncomplicated information regarding plant and microbial lipids not just for scientists operating within the microbiological and plant fields, yet for someone short of a concise creation to this point of lipid biochemistry. we now have lengthy been conscious that ordinary biochemistry books are inclined to. focus (sometimes completely) on animal lipids, hence neglecting some of the very important and detailed positive factors of different organisms. it isn't our purpose that the publication will be entire and we've not, for example, supplied entire lists of lipid compositions of all crops and bacterial species; a couple of very good professional texts exist and plenty of of those are indexed for additional studying. as an alternative we have now sought to supply enough details for a sophisticated undergraduate or a study scholar to offer them a 'feel' for the topic. via a mix of generalisation and using examples of designated curiosity we are hoping the publication will whet the urge for food of the reader in order that, through their very own learn, they're encouraged to find and, possibly, resolution the various attention-grabbing questions referring to plant and microbial lipids. We belief that we will achieve those goals, no matter if that might suggest extra festival for examine cash in our personal fields! J. L. HARWOOD N. J. RUSSELL November 1983 Acknowledgements Our examine careers were dedicated to a examine of lipids: we haven't any regrets and are satisfied to recognize Professors J. N.
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Extra info for Lipids in Plants and Microbes
The amino groups are substituted exclusively with 3-hydroxymyristate while the remaining hydroxyl groups are acylated with a mixture of 12C, 14C and 16C saturated fatty acids and 3-myristoxymyristate. There is some microheterogeneity between bacteria with regard to the nature of the fatty acids and also the amount of phosphate or type of sugar. The hydroxy fatty acids most commonly have the 3-D configuration. The fatty acids are sometimes referred to as 'bound fatty acids' and lipopolysaccharide as 'bound lipid' since they are not released by extraction procedures used for phospholipids, etc.
50% of the total lipid of Sarcina [utea is hydrocarbon and acylglycerols. However, in none of these cases is it clear whether neutral lipids are bona fide components of any cell membrane. As already noted, steroids do not usually occur in true bacteria, the exception being some methylotrophs which contain intracytoplasmic membranes (Sec. 5), although there is no evidence for a preferential location of the sterols between these membranes and the cytoplasmic membrane. The mycoplasmas, a group of wall-less parasitic prokaryotes, require sterols for growth; these they obtain from the host and incorporate into their plasma membrane.
Mycolic acids are 2-branched, 3-hydroxy long-chain (22-90C) fatty acids, which may be (di)unsaturated or contain methyl branches, methoxy groups and cyclopropane rings (Fig. 10). The 2-branch is usually a normal 22-24C acyl chain. Similar arabinogalactan mycolates are present in cell walls of Nocardia and Corynebacterium species. Generally, the mycolic acids of mycobacteria are of larger molecular weight than those of corynebacteria and nocardiae (but see Sec. l). 11 Structures of mycobacterial lipids: (a) trehalose mycolate, where Rl and R2 are mycolic acids (see Fig.