By Cornelis R. Ronda
During this, the single updated booklet in this key know-how, the number-one professional within the box completely blends educational wisdom and business applications.
Adopting a didactical procedure, Professor Ronda discusses the entire underlying ideas, such that either researchers in addition to newbies within the box will cash in on this publication. the point of interest is at the inorganic part and the phenomena of luminescence in the back of the manifold purposes illustrated right here, together with monitors, LEDs, lamps, and clinical functions.
helpful interpreting for chemists and electrochemists, in addition to fabrics scientists, these operating within the optical and chemical undefined, plus lamp and lights brands.
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Extra resources for Luminescence: From Theory to Applications
Efﬁcient LEDs are not yet available in all colors required. Especially green is a concern. Phosphors for LEDs have to fulﬁll rather harsh conditions. , in ﬂuorescent lamps), the luminescent materials must remain efﬁcient up to high temperatures, should not show saturation (meaning a less than linear increase in output power with input power at high excitation densities), and must be radiation stable. 9 Factors Determining the Emission Color Many luminescent ions show emission at different wavelengths in different host lattices.
In many host lattices, therefore, at low Tb concentration, emission from both the 5D3 and 5D4 excited states is observed (unless the gap between these two states is bridged by phonon emission, for which relatively high-energy phonons are required, which is, for example, the case with InBO3:Tb). The resulting emission spectrum has emission from the near UV into the red part of 19 20 1 Emission and Excitation Mechanisms of Phosphors Fig. 15 Cross-relaxation between two Tb3þ ions. the optical spectrum.
14) (energy emitted per unit time divided by the photon energy hv): A ¼ 1=t0 ¼ ð4vjmj2 =ð3c3 ÞÞ=ðhvÞ ð14Þ in which t0 is the radiative lifetime. 6 Energy Transfer Mechanisms Between Optical Centers The oscillator strength for an optical transition is related to jmj2 in the following way: f ¼ 2mvjmj2 =ð3he2 Þ ð16Þ jmj2 is thus given by jmj2 ¼ ð3 he2 Þf=ð2mvÞ ð17Þ Apart from some numbers we are now able to calculate the rate of energy transfer from sensitizer ions to activator ions, being the product of equation (14) for the sensitizer and (17) for the activator ion divided by the distance R6SA (see above, the transition rate contains the matrix element for the energy squared): WSA / 3hc3 =ð8pv3 t0S Þð3he2 Þf A =ð2mvR6SA Þ ð18Þ Or, after some rearrangements and inclusion of the numbers mentioned above (which partly originate from the expansion of the interaction Hamiltonian in spherical harmonics), the following equation is obtained : ð WSA ¼ 2p=h=R6SA 3e2 c3 h6 =4m f A =tS h gS ðEÞgA ðEÞ=E4 dE ð19Þ In this equation, tS is the decay time of the sensitizer ion and h is the quantum efﬁciency of the sensitizer ion.