Make: Technology on Your Time Volume 16 by Mark Frauenfelder

By Mark Frauenfelder

No challenge is most unlikely while makers placed their brain to it. MAKE quantity sixteen can assist you get clever with a distinct part on undercover agent tech. the way to construct and use tiny surveillance units, and the way to understand if a undercover agent is utilizing them on you. From tiny video cameras to sneaky recorders, this quantity has adequate cool stuff to make James Bond's inventor Q envious.

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Static effects modeling bond bending can be described using Hookes Law. For low frequencies where the NPs are in equilibrium, the Hookes Law force simply adds to the potential in the Boltzmann distribution of the NP magnetic alignment. The potential energy, Ep = μ H cosφ, is a function of the angle the particle makes with the applied field φ, the moment of the particle, μ, and applied field, H. The magnetization integrated over φ provides the macroscopic magnetization in equilibrium: (1) where n is the number of particles and α=μH/kT, k is the Boltzmann constant and T is the temperature.

For the results presented here, PCCS is used. PCCS allows for simultaneous measurement of particle size distribution and stability in the range of dh = 1 nm to some micrometers in suspensions, where dh is the hydrodynamic diameter. 2. Magnetic Particle Spectroscopy (MPS) Magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS) can be understood as measurement of the magnetization response, M(t), when applying a sinusoidally oscillating magnetic field, H(t). The dynamics can be modeled by Langevin’s theory of paramagnetism,   m μ H (t )  k BT  M (t ) = ms c  coth  s 0  −  k BT  ms μ0 H (t )   where µ0 is the permeability of vacuum, kB the Boltzmann constant, T the temperature in Kelvin and, c the particle concentration.

We demonstrate that chemical binding also changes the phases of the harmonics. The change in phase observed for bound and free nanoparticles are different functions of frequency so sweeping the frequency should provide an internal control for other effects. The relative phase of the harmonics provides a concentration independent measure of chemical binding. The harmonics from very low nanoparticle concentrations can be measured in vivo so it should be possible to monitor chemical binding in vivo as well.

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