By Andrej à alak, Marcela Selecká (auth.)
This paintings in 3 components offers a precis of the sintered manganese metal houses from 1948 to 2011 related to processing stipulations and different features. within the first and 3rd half are given effects attained through the authors in line with their discovering that manganese (cheapest point) in the course of sintering evaporates and via this the vapour cleans the sintering atmospheres from humidity. the second one half offers different confident houses of manganese steels regardless of the doubt of oxidation of manganese in the course of sintering and by means of this except the sintering manganese steels what hinderd using manganese in construction of sintered components. All effects verify that in basic terms manganese vapour based on discovering of the authors guarantees powerful sintering of manganese steels and components independently at the authors brain. It follows eventually from the paintings that manganese is feasible to take advantage of for alloying of powder steels sintered additionally in perform in H/N atmospheres with low purity and likewise in natural nitrogen - more affordable than hydrogen with no a few of the linked difficulties. present tendencies within the box also are offered to the reader.
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Extra resources for Manganese in Powder Metallurgy Steels
A), (b), (d), (e) as in Fig. 5 [20,23–25,28]. Fig. 7 Appearance of the boats with electrolytic manganese (EMn) and highcarbon ferromanganese (FeMnC) heat treated for 30 min at 1100°C in hydrogen: (a) – piece of EMn, alumina boat, (b) – FeMnC, powder, porcelain boat, (c) – EMn powder, alumina boat. and high-carbon ferromanganese, used as manganese carriers, in the porcelain boats, proved the manganese sublimation and its reaction with porcelain only, Fig. 2(a). These features occurred under various annealing times and temperatures in the range 900– 1250°C.
Shows the cross-sections of the boat in three positions. The first view, figure (a), shows both halves of the boat with the traces of a black layer at the bottom and sidewalls. 12(b) shows the section through the bottom of the boat and the direction of microanalysis, and Fig. 12(c) shows the same section through the side wall of the boat. It can be seen that extensive changes took place in the structure of the porcelain in the investigated conditions. One of these changes is the formation of a subsurface layer with full density in comparison with the porous initial state of the material.
5(e). The side views of the boats, shown in Fig. 6, prove that the gaseous manganese filled the entire tube volume and by this also condensed on the outer sides of the boats. 7 compares the appearance of the heat treated alumina and porcelain boats with electrolytic manganese in two forms and with powder high-carbon ferromanganese (liquid phase formed). These features, blackening, observed only at sintering of the Fe–Mn samples as well as at annealing of electrolytic manganese 30 Manganese in Powder Metallurgy Steels Fig.