Materials for engineers and technicians by Raymond A Higgins

By Raymond A Higgins

The entire creation to fabrics engineering, keeping off over the top technical jargon and mathematical complexity.

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79 22 Materials for Engineers and Technicians Materials are supplied in a number of standard forms, the forms depending on the material concerned. Thus, they may be supplied in the form of sheet and plate, barstock, pipe and tube, rolled sections, extrusions, ingots, castings and mouldings, forgings and pressings, granules and powders or liquids. The costs of manufacturing will depend on the processes used. Some processes require a large capital outlay and then can be used to produce large numbers of the product at a relatively low cost per item.

Unfortunately, the results from such a test can be variable, even with material of uniform quality. The depth of cup that can be drawn depends largely upon the pressure between the blankholder and the die-face. Light pressure will allow metal to be drawn between the die and the holder, and a deeper cup is formed. The continentals tend to use firm pressure between die and holder, whereas in Britain we ‘cheat’ by using lighter pressure. Nevertheless, the British Standards Institution recognises the Erichsen test in BS EN ISO 20482; test-piece dimensions, testing apparatus, lubricants and precautions are dealt with.

20% carbon. 24 Materials for Engineers and Technicians As a further illustration of coding, the British Standards Institution coding for wrought copper and copper alloys consists of two letters followed by three digits. The two letters indicate the alloy group and the three digits the alloy within that group. C CA CB CN CS CZ NS PB Very high percentage of copper. Copper–aluminium alloys. Copper–beryllium alloys. Copper–nickel alloys (cupro-nickels). Copper–silicon alloys (silicon bronzes). Copper–zinc alloys (brasses).

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