Mathematics Manual for Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant by Frank R. Spellman

By Frank R. Spellman

A accomplished, self-contained arithmetic reference, the maths handbook for Water and Wastewater remedy Plant Operators should be worthy to operators of all degrees of workmanship and event. The textual content is split into 3 elements. half 1 covers simple math, half 2 covers utilized math ideas, and half three offers a finished workbook with greater than 1700 pattern difficulties highlighting the categories of examination questions operators can count on to work out on kingdom licensure examinations. Readers operating during the publication systematically will collect a definitive knowing of and talent in acting the utilized water/wastewater calculations which are crucial for a winning occupation.

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3 ft3/s. What is the flow rate expressed as gallons per minute (gal/min)? fm Page 43 Saturday, January 31, 2004 5:18 PM of Measurement, 10 Units Conversions, and Electrical Calculations TOPICS • • • • Units of Measurement Conversion Factors • Weight, Concentration, and Flow Conversions • Typical Water/Wastewater Conversion Examples • Temperature Conversions • Population Equivalent (PE) or Unit Loading Factor • Specific Gravity and Density • Flow • Detention Time • Chemical Addition Conversions • Horsepower and Energy Costs • Electrical Power Electrical Calculations • Ohm’s Law • Electrical Power • Electric Energy • Series D-C Circuit Characteristics • Parallel D-C Circuits Most of the calculations made in the water/wastewater industry have units connected or associated with them.

Solution Let n represent the smaller number. 7 Problem If 5 times the sum of a number and 6 is increased by 3, the result is two less than 10 times the number. Find the number. 8 Problem For the equation 2x + 5 = 10, solve for x. 5x – 1 = –6, find x. fm Page 33 Saturday, January 31, 2004 5:15 PM 8 Ratio and Proportion TOPICS • • • Ratio Proportion Working with Ratio and Proportion RATIO A ratio is the established relationship between two numbers. For example, if someone says, “I’ll give you four to one for the Redskins over the Cowboys in the Super Bowl,” what does that person mean?

In this case, 1 has the same relation to 2 that 3 has to 6. What exactly is that relation? The number 1 is half the size of 2, and 3 is half the size of 6. Alternately, 2 is twice the size of 1, and 6 is twice the size of 3. WORKING WITH RATIO AND PROPORTION When working with ratio and/or proportion, the following key points are important to remember. • • One place where fractions are used in calculations is when ratios and proportions are involved, such as calculating solutions. fm Page 34 Saturday, January 31, 2004 5:15 PM • If one of the four items is unknown, the ratio is solved by dividing the two known items that are multiplied together by the known item multiplied by the unknown.

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