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Additional resources for Mechanized Tunnelling in Urban Areas: Design Methodology and Construction Control
Probability describes the level of uncertainty associated with a variable. g. g. ). Hence, data regarding the ground characteristics, the construction variables, and the unpredictable events can be treated statistically to identify the most appropriate probability distribution function for each variable. For example, the unconﬁned compressive strength of the ground and its modulus of deformation can be represented through a Gaussian distribution; joint spacing is well described by a negative exponential distribution, and a simple triangular distribution can be used to represent the duration or cost of a single construction cycle under predeﬁned conditions.
Each compartment was capable of independent movement (Fig. 6). 74 m long. Chisel shaped stoves or sliders attached to the top and bottom of each compartment slid forward to cut and support the ground immediately ahead of the shield. Advancement was by means of screw jacks which thrust against the ﬁnished masonry of the tunnel. Each compartment supported its part of the tunnel face by means of 14 or 15 horizontal breasting boards, held in position of advance by means of a pair of screw jacks. The 12 compartments were advanced alternately one at a time; each advancement step was no more than 15 cm.
2007) aiming to identify, manage, and coordinate the interfaces between disciplines/activities during both the design and construction, to prevent blockages and problems before they arise, and to ﬁnd solutions when there are conﬂicts. The Group of Permanent Coordination, GPC, can be set by the Owner or can be promoted by the Designer. The GPC is in charge of: guaranteeing the coherent and integrated development of the project, leading the onset of the interfaces among the disciplines, and addressing and managing the resolution of risks.