By William F. Hosford, Robert M. Caddell
This ebook is helping the engineer comprehend the foundations of steel forming and learn forming problems--both the mechanics of forming approaches and the way the homes of metals engage with the methods. during this 3rd variation, a whole bankruptcy has been dedicated to forming restrict diagrams and numerous features of stamping and one other on different sheet forming operations. Sheet trying out is roofed in a separate bankruptcy. assurance of sheet steel houses has been improved. fascinating end-of-chapter notes were additional all through, in addition to references. greater than 2 hundred end-of-chapter difficulties also are integrated.
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Additional resources for Metal Forming: Mechanics and Metallurgy
5 shows such a plot for an aluminum alloy. Note that there are three zones. Zone I is the elastic region where σ = Eε. Zone II is the region of transition between elastic and fully plastic behavior and the material in Zone III is fully ∗ The power-law hardening expression is sometimes called the Hollomon equation because it was first made popular by John H. Hollomon in Ferrous Metallurgical Design by John H. Hollomon and Leonard D. Jaffe (New York: J. Wiley). 4. 5. True stress–strain curve of aluminum 1100-O plotted on logarithmic coordinates.
It is related to what has been called the plastic potential. For the von Mises criterion, differentiation results in dε1 = dλ[σ1 − (1/2)(σ2 + σ3 )] dε2 = dλ[σ2 − (1/2)(σ3 + σ1 )] dε3 = dλ[σ3 − (1/2)(σ1 + σ2 )]. 22) 21:24 P1: KAE 0521881210c02 24 CUFX149/Hosford 0 521 88121 8 printer: Sheridan October 4, 2007 PLASTICITY In these expressions dλ = d¯ε/σ¯ , which varies with position on the σ¯ − ε¯ curve. However, the ratio of the plastic strains remains constant. dε1 : dε2 : dε3 = [σ1 − (1/2)(σ2 + σ3 )] : [σ2 −(1/2)(σ3 + σ1 )] : [σ3 − (1/2)(σ1 + σ2 )].
On a logarithmic scale and determine K and n. 35. 6. 30 loaded under balanced biaxial tension. What is the volume change, V/V, just before yielding? 7. The strain-hardening of a certain alloy is better approximated by σ = A − exp(1 − Bε) than by σ¯ = k ε¯ n . Determine the true strain at necking in terms of A and B. 8. 7. 9. A metal sheet undergoing plane-strain deformation is loaded to a tensile stress of 300 MPa. 22 MPa? 10. A metal sheet undergoing plane-strain deformation is loaded to a tensile stress of 300 MPa.