By Bruce L. Bramfitt, Arlan O. Benscoter
Offers a pretty good evaluation of the real metallurgical innovations regarding microstructures of irons and steels, and it presents distinctive directions for the right kind metallographic thoughts used to bare, catch, and comprehend microstructures.
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Additional resources for Metallographer's Guide: Practices and Procedures for Irons and Steels
Between 785 and 727 °C (1445 and 1340 °F), the Ar1, austenite continues to transform to ferrite. At 727 °C (1340 °F), the remaining austenite transforms through the eutectoid reaction. The ferrite that forms above 727 °C (1340 °F) is called proeutectoid ferrite (the preﬁx pro meaning before the eutectoid transformation). The eutectoid transformation in this case results in austenite transforming into two separate phases: ferrite and cementite. Thus: Austenite ↔ Ferrite ϩ Cementite Fig. 4 Face-centered cubic crystal structure (unit cell) Fig.
White Iron If a gray iron is solidiﬁed rapidly, white iron results. Graphite ﬂakes are not present in white iron. Instead of graphite ﬂakes, an iron carbide network forms that gives the white appearance on the fracture surface. The microstructure of a typical white iron is shown in Fig. 26. 2 The silicon content is lower in white iron to minimize its graphitizing effect. White irons are extremely hard and abrasion resistant. To enhance their abrasion resistance, they are usually alloyed with nickel, chromium, and/or molybdenum.
31 Micrograph of an austempered ductile cast iron showing a microstructure consisting of bainite (acicular constituent) and graphite nodules (dark gray constituent). Etched in 2% nital. 500ϫ Introduction to Steels and Cast Irons / 21 into a molten salt bath). ASTM has recently established a speciﬁcation, A 895, for austempered ductile iron. The speciﬁcation consists of ﬁve grades that incorporate the minimum tensile strength, minimum yield strength, and elongation (similar to the system discussed previously for ductile iron).