By Michael Gaft, Renata Reisfeld, Gerard Panczer
Luminescence Spectroscopy of Minerals and Materials offers an summary of the overall thoughts in luminescence spectroscopy in addition to experimental equipment and their interpretation. detailed emphasis is laid at the fluorescence lifetime and the selection of time-resolved spectra. this system permits the publicity of recent luminescence in minerals formerly hidden through extra extensive facilities. experts within the fields of good kingdom physics, chemistry and spectroscopy will discover a wealth of latest details during this certain book.
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Additional info for Modern Luminescence Spectroscopy of Minerals and Materials
If there is a large enough energy difference between the five d orbitals, as in the case if the ligand field is very large, the Hind’s rule of maximum multiplicity no longer applies. As a result, the lower orbitals, for example the three t2g orbitals in an octahedral system, will fill completely before any electrons enter the upper two eg orbitals. This is low spin (or high field) configuration. Significant changes could occur in the octahedral 3d4 to 3d7 cases, and in the tetrahedral 3d3 to 3d6 cases.
DI ðλÞ ¼ Àα I ðλÞ dx ð2:1Þ where α is a proportionality constant called the absorption coefficient, which also depends on wavelength. Integrating Eq. 1, we find for a non-reflecting sample of thickness t: I T ðλÞ ¼ I o ðλÞexpðÀα tÞ ð2:2Þ where IT is the transmitted light intensity and Io the incident light intensity. In these terms, the transmittance spectrum is T ðλÞ ¼ I T ðλÞ=I o ðλÞ so that ð2:3Þ 622 6/mmm À62 m D6 D6h D3h Hexagonal 6 C6 C6v 6 mm C6h 6/m C3h À6 D2d (Vd) D4 D4h S4 À42 m 422 4/mmm À4 Tetragonal C4 4 C4v 4 mm C4h 4/m D3d D3 S6(C3i) À32/m (À3 m) 32 À3 Trigonal C3 3 C3v 3m D2 (V) D2h(Vh) C2v 222 2/mmm (mmm) 2 mm Orthorhombic C2h C1h (Cs) 2/m m (À2) Monoclinic C2 2 S2 (Ci) À1 Triclinic C1 1 For cubic symmetry, T correspond to 23, Th to m3, O to 432, Td to 4–3 m, Oh to m3m and I to 532 (thus impossible for crystals, but possible for molecule) Column pairs give the Sch€ onflies and equivalent Hermann-Mauguin international notation.
Absorption and emission transitions are possible with Stokes shift. The relaxed excited state may, however, reach the crossing point of the two parabolas if the temperature is high enough and to return to the ground state in a nonradiative manner. The excitation energy is then completely given up as heat to the lattice. This model accounts for the thermal quenching of luminescence. Another possibility to return to the ground state is by transfer of the excitation energy from the excited center (S*) to another center (A).