Mycorrhizas - Functional Processes and Ecological Impact by David Atkinson (auth.), Concepción Azcón-Aguilar, Jose

By David Atkinson (auth.), Concepción Azcón-Aguilar, Jose Miguel Barea, Silvio Gianinazzi, Vivienne Gianinazzi-Pearson (eds.)

Mycorrhizal symbioses are primary to the multitrophic interactions that influence plant productiveness, competitiveness and survival. This booklet integrates present-day wisdom from recognized learn teams on many of the issues that are on the leading edge of mycorrhizal study. issues comprise the mobile programmes that force mycorrhiza formation and serve as, the strategies maintaining symbiotic mutualism, pressure reaction mechanisms in mycorrhizal symbionts, and the range and ecological affects of mycorrhizal platforms. The effective administration of mycorrhizal structures has the capability to aid the sustainable construction of caliber meals whereas making sure environmental caliber for destiny generations.

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Science 159:1432–1437 Provorov NA (1998) Coevolution of rhizobia with legumes: facts and hypotheses. Symbiosis 24:337–367 Provorov NA, Tikhonovich IA (2003) Genetic resources for improving nitrogen fixation in legume-rhizobia symbiosis. Genetic Res Crop Evol 50:89–99 Provorov NA, Vorobyov NI (2000) Population genetics of rhizobia: construction and analysis of an “infection and release” model. J Theor Biol 205:105–119 2 Interspecies Altruism in Plant–Microbe Symbioses 31 Provorov NA, Vorobyov NI (2006) Interplay of Darwinian and frequency-dependent selection in the host-associated microbial populations.

First analyses of microarray transcriptome profiles of G. intraradices-inoculated versus non-inoculated M. truncatula wild-type and dmi3/Mtsym13 mutant roots has revealed a high number of differentially regulated genes in the incompatible interactions (Seddas, Kuester, Becker & Gianinazzi-Pearson, unpublished results). As may be expected from the wall reactions to appressoria in cells of dmi3/Mtsym13 roots, genes implicated in wall constituent synthesis are activated. In addition, there is over-expression of disease resistance-related genes in mutant roots but this does not appear to be responsible for the mycorrhizaresistant phenotype of dmi3/Mtsym13 roots since these genes are down-regulated by interactions with the symbiotic fungus.

Migration of the plant nucleus to the opposite cell wall (towards the cortex) then induces the formation of an apoplastic tunnel within which fungal penetration occurs. Observations on interactions with mycorrhizadefective M. truncatula mutants indicate that nuclear movement towards sites of fungal contact is not dependent on the symbiosis-related genes, such as MtDMI2/ MtSYM2 which codes a receptor-like kinase or MtDMI3/MtSYM13, whilst assembly of the intracellular apoplastic tunnel is, providing further evidence for the active involvement of symbiosis-related plant genes in the fine control of root colonisation.

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