Nondestructive Evaluation and Quality Control. Metals by ASM International

By ASM International

The elemental ideas of every process in addition to its corresponding services are defined in 23 separate articles. targeted info is equipped on regular tools comparable to liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, eddy present and radiographic inspection, electronic snapshot enhancement, ultrasonic inspection, tomography, and real-time radiography.

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Moving-Table Type. In this configuration, the probe is attached to the horizontal arm, which is permanently attached at one end only to a carriage that moves in a vertical (z) direction (Fig. 8b) on the column. The arm support and table move horizontally (x- and y-directions) relative to the machine base. The moving-table horizontal-arm CMM unit shown in Fig. 9 is even more versatile because of the introduction of a rotary moving table. Fig. 9 Horizontal-arm moving-table CMM equipped for operation in hostile environments is shown inspecting a cast iron automotive engine block.

The system locates a position by assigning it values along the x, y, and z axes of travel. Another system used is the polar coordinate system. This system locates a point in space by its distance or radius from a fixed origin point and the angle this radius makes with a fixed origin line. It is analogous to the coordinate system used on a radial-arm saw or radial-arm drill. Types of Measurements. As stated earlier, fundamentally, CMMs measure the size and shape of an object and its contours by gathering raw data through sensors or probes.

This triangulation (much like surveying) in turn provides the actual position and so on, of the feature on the part being measured. Vision Probes. This type of sensor is the most recent and sophisticated addition to the sensor systems currently in use. Vision is another form of noncontact sensing and is especially useful where very high speed inspection or measurement is required. In this system, the part is not measured directly. Instead, an electronic representation of it is measured and evaluated.

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