Novel Surfactants: Preparation, Applications, and by Krister Holmberg

By Krister Holmberg

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Additional info for Novel Surfactants: Preparation, Applications, and Biodegradability, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded

Example text

Pastor et al. studied the hydration behavior of octyl h-D-glucopyranoside [44]. A hydration number of 16 for monomers below the CMC is calculated. The hydration number is strongly reduced in the micellar state. At low concentrations, a micellar aggregation number of 54 is found which increases for high concentrations to 104. The surface tension behavior of surfactant mixtures of alkyl polyglycosides and anionic surfactants was investigated with reference to the example of an alkyl polyglycoside/fatty alcohol sulfate (FAS) mixture [39].

Copyright © 2003 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC FIG. 10 DSC data on binary aqueous mixtures of C12MG (A) (solid squares) and Calvet isothermal calorimetric data on ternary mixtures containing various additives (B). Ethanol, open circles; propanol, open triangles; butanol, open squares. 2. , dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide, citric acid, and glycerol) also have little effect on Krafft points. 3. Hydrophilic salting-out electrolytes (sodium, potassium, or ammonium chlorides, carbonates, nitrates, and sulfates) likewise have little effect on Krafft points.

However, studies of its behavior on cooling along the 20% and 40% isopleths (starting above the Krafft boundary) revealed distinctive and unfamiliar kinetic phenomena. Cooling along the 40% isopleth to below the Krafft boundary resulted in virtually instantaneous formation of the hexagonal liquid crystal phase (which displays a characteristic and intense birefringence). This result is consistent with the position of the metastable hexagonal boundary as determined using DIT studies. In striking contrast, cooling the 20% mixture did not yield a liquid crystal phase.

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