Oil Age Eskimos by Joseph G. Jorgensen

By Joseph G. Jorgensen

In a e-book made specifically well timed through the disastrous Exxon Valdez oil spill in March 1989, Joseph Jorgensen analyzes the influence of Alaskan oil extraction on Eskimo society. the writer investigated 3 groups representing 3 environments: Gambell (St. Lawrence Island, Bering Sea), Wainwright (North Slope, Chukchi Sea), and Unalakleet (Norton Sound). The Alaska local Claims payment Act of 1971, which facilitated oil operations, dramatically altered the industrial, social, and political association of those villages and others like them. even if they've got skilled little direct monetary enjoy the oil economic climate, they've got assumed many environmental dangers posed via the undefined. Jorgensen offers an in depth reminder that the local villagers nonetheless rely on the harvest of naturally-occurring assets of the land and sea—birds, eggs, fish, crops, land mammals and sea mammals. Oil Age Eskimos could be learn by means of all these drawn to local American societies and the rules that impact these societies.

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It also administers many of the federal programs that play significant roles in village affairs, such as social services. The IRA government serves long-term native interests in the environment and also represents native culture in village affairs, particularly in dealing with persons and institutions in the Copyrighted material The Study Vill4gts 39 village. The IRA leaders work weD with elected and appointed officials in the city government (which includes both natives and nonnatives) and in the Unalakleet Native Corporation (the village for-profit corporation).

Ovoon90 ~ J~Pt. Nitnepotuk Nlyokpok Lovoon ST. Qo St. ow~ ll land 510 Unoloklttt g,,;~g Map 3. St. Lawrence Island Regjon, Bering Sea Kiotegok Pt. Comp Kolowiye 28 The Study Villages Gambell comprises both igneous and sedimentary formations. Lagoons are frequent around the shoreline, and many shortcourse rivers empty into them or directly into the Bering Sea. In 1970, just prior to ANCSA, the Gambell population was 372. It had grown to 465 by 1982 and 522 by 1989. About 15 nonnatives reside in Gambell.

ANCSA has been a primary source of change to many aspects of village culture, extinguishing aboriginal hunting, fishing, and latid rights; providing for lhe reorganization of the govern- Copyrighted material The Problem 19 ment and corporate structures; providing new recognition of sovereignty and authority (self-government) to villages; providing new sources of unearned income; providing for village-level institutions that seek and acquire state and federal funds; providing regional institutions (profit and nonprofit corporations) and formal relations with them; and providing for title to land, some of which is conveyed to each village and some of which, in tum, is conveyed to individuals.

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