Opposed Piston Engines - Evolution, Use, and Future by Pirault, Jean-Pierre; Flint, Martin

By Pirault, Jean-Pierre; Flint, Martin

This publication explores the adversarial piston (OP) engine, a version of strength and straightforwardness, and gives the 1st finished description of such a lot OP engines from 1887 to 2006. layout and function information of the main forms of OP engines in desk bound, flooring, marine, and aviation functions are explored and their evolution traced. The OP engine has set enviable and modern criteria for power/weight refinement, gasoline tolerance, gasoline potency, package deal house, and production simplicity. For those purposes, the OP inspiration nonetheless continues to be of curiosity for impressive energy and package deal density, simplicity, and reliability; e.g., aviation and likely army delivery necessities.

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Although these engines were more practical than the tandem arrangements, they also experienced difficultiesthat eventually led to their replacement by steam power. The failure of these Junkers marine engines is attributed to a combination of very long multicylinder crankshaft arrangements, and the inability of shipyards in Germany at that time to manufacture precision parts for diesel engines. This is in contrast to United Kingdom shipyard experience, where similar Doxford engines were being built and successfully operated.

During this period, the Jumo 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, and 218 engines evolved, of which the 205 and 207 entered production. The 205 was the first engine for commercial applications, while the 207 was used in high-altitude applications in the Luftwaffe. During WWII, forty-eight piston versions of the Jumo family were derived, designated as the Jumo 223, with banks of four cylinders/ four crankshafts and eight cylinders per bank (Fig. 17), all spark ignited. Fig. 1 7 Junkers Four-Crank Opposed Piston Diesel Engine-Jumo 223 [Reproduced courtesy of IMarE (now IMarEST) Transactions Vol.

30 rpm, with air-blast injection pressures of only 20 bar, in contrast to other air-blast injection engines that experienced poor combustion under these conditions. This is probably attributable to a combination of the extremely low surface-area-to-volume ratio of the OP engines, the use of a piston construction that resulted in crown surface temperatures of -5OO”C, and the fuel-and-air mixing system. After some discouraging experimentation with ported and valved two-strokes, work on an OP engine began in Sunderland in 1910 at the Doxford Engine Works, led by Karl Otto Keller, who was born in Switzerland in 1877 and ended his days in 1942 in Sunderland.

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