Optics , Edition: 2 Sub by Francis Graham, Sir Smith, J. H. Thomson, Francis

By Francis Graham, Sir Smith, J. H. Thomson, Francis Graham-Smith

Optics as an issue has advanced dramatically in recent times, with many functions all through technological know-how and expertise.

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C) The variation in phase of the resultant relative to one of the original oscillations. This figure shows the limiting case of Fig. 4 for equal amplitudes. The frequency difference shown here is greater than in Fig. 4. This figure shows beats having maximum modulation. phasor representing the smaller oscillation rotates; the sum oscillation is represented by a phasor whose tip traces out a circle. The middle of the figure shows the pattern of the actual oscillation. The phasor diagram gives the amplitude and relative phase of the oscillation.

6 can most easily be demonstrated by arranging for the total reflection of a plane wave. A classic demonstration of the standing waves of light reflected by a mirror was carried out in 1891 by Lippmann. He used a photographic plate with very fine grain, backed with a layer of mercury to act as a smooth reflector. A plane wave of monochromatic light, falling on the plate, formed a standing wave which could be seen in the developed film by cutting a section zt a very shallow angle. ) The Lippmann demonstration can now he repeated much more easily by using radio waves with wavelength of a few centimetres; but it had a particular historical importance in that it showed not merely the wave pattern but the way in which the pattern was related to the reflecting surface.

The pattern of Fig. 16(a) is produced by two waves out of phase at the surface, while in Fig. 16(b) the two waves are in phase at the surface. e. the reflection coefficient. We will return to this in Chapter 4. 1 (i) Show that the energy in the sum of two oscillations is equal to the sum of their individual energies, provided that they differ in frequency and a suitable time average is taken. (ii) For many oscillations with random phases, show that the energy of the sum is nearly equal to the sum of the individual energies.

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